Nepal earthquake

  • Created by: tas.xq
  • Created on: 31-03-19 19:44

Background information

  • Saturday 25 April 2015
  • Magnitude of 7.8
  • Struck Nepal just before midday
  • Epicentre located in remote district of Gorka
  • Shock waves travelled along Kathmandu (capital) to India, China and Bangladesh
  • Followed by 300 aftershocks (several over a magnitude of 6.5)
  • The earthquake also caused avalanches and landslides

Nepal GDP = 109 / 193 (ranking)

Nepal HDI = 145 / 187 (ranking)

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Causes

Nepal is used to earthquake activity.

- A 1000 km fault line runs along the southern border (there is a convergent plate boundary) < Indian and Eurasian plate - creates the Himilayas.

- Earthquakes of a magnitude of more than 8 happen there. (intervals of 75-80 years)

The two plates are colliding ata a rate of 45mm per year

- In 2015 the Indian plate jumped forward about 2m

- The magnitude was high because the origin of the earthquake was close to the surface of the ground (shock waves have a shorter distance to travel).

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Primary effects

  • 8 million peopel affected
  • 9000 deaths (mostly in Nepal)
  • 23000 injured (mostly in Nepal)
  • 3 million left homeless
  • Supplies and connections affected
  • 7000 schools destroyed
  • 50%of shops destroyed (affected access to resources and livelihood)
  • Widespread damage was in the capital ( densely populated - 1 mill.) and the Kathmandu valley
    • It's an important settlement (more than 2000 years)
    • Ancient monuments and temples were severely damaged ( collapsing - killed people)
    • Various types of buildings fell (houses, business and public facilities, etc.)
    • smaller building - poorer people - suffered most damage
    • Over 1/2 million homes destroyed
    • Major deaths and casualties in other countries
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Secondary Effects

  • The sahking of the ground triggered avalanches and landslides
    • Avalanches on Everest killed at least 19
    • Avalanche in Langtang left 250 missing
    • Landslide blocked river which meant that people living near the river had to evacuate (in case of flooding)
  • The earthquake happened on land so it did not cause a tsunami
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Immediate response

  • Search and rescue teams, water and medical support from other countries (UK, India, China)
  • Helicopters rescued people stuck in avalanches + delivered supplies to remote areas
  • 1/2 millions tents provided for the homeless
  • Financial aid from many countries
  • Field hospitals were set up to support overcrowded main hospitals
  • 300000 migrated from Kathmandu to seek shelter + support from family and friends
  • Social media assisted search and rescue efforts + satellites mapped damaged areas
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Long-term responses

  • Roads repaired and landslides cleared
    • Lakes formed from damming river valleys need to be cleared to prevent flooding
  • Thousands of homeless to be re-housed and homes repaired
  • 7000 schools rebuilt or repaired
  • Enforcing stricter controls on building codes
  • June 2015 - Nepal hosted conference on reconstruction (technical and financial support from other countries)
  • Boosting tourism - re-opening sites 
  • repairs to Everest base camp and trekking routes 
  • Late 2015 - a blockade at the indian border affected the supply of fuels, medicines and construction materials
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