Melody & Rhythm
- Augmentation, diminution
- Cross-rhythm: conflicting rhythms
- Descant:countermelody above main melody
- Melismatic/ syllabic
- Polyrhythm: different pulses
- Obbligato: prominent instrumental part
- Ornamentation: trill, mordent, acciaccatura
- Range/ tessitura
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Articulation & Performance
- A capella
- Sotto voce
- Staccato, legato
- Sforzando, accent
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- Bitonal: two different keys used simultaneously
- Cadences: perfect, imperfect, interrupted, plagal
- Enharmonic change: chords go from having lots of flats to lots of sharps or vice versa
- False relation: chromatic contradiction between notes heard simultaneously in different parts
- Harmonic rhythm: rate at which harmony changes
- Modes: dorian, aeolian, mixolydian
- Pedal: tonic, dominant, inverted
- Primary chords, secondary chords, chromatic chords
- Tierce de Picardie
- Whole tone
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- Alberti bass accompaniment: arpeggiated- low, high, mid, high pattern
- Antiphony, call & response
- Arpeggio: the notes of the chord are played in order
- Block chords: harmonising a melody by having all the notes move in parallel
- Broken chords: separating the notes of the chord and playing them on alternate beats
- Heterophonic: musicians perform a single melody simultaneously, each add subtle variations
- Homophonic, chordal
- Monophonic, unison, octaves
- Parallel motion, contrary motion
- Polyphonic, contrapuntal
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- Canonic: an initial melody is imitated at a specific time interval by 1+ parts
- Fugal: systematic imitation of the subject in simultaneous melodic lines
- Stretto: overlapping of statements of the subject in a fugue
- Strophic: the music is repeated for each verse
- Through-composed: (i) different music for each verse (ii) stage work not split into numbers
- Verse and chorus
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- Doubling: When? Octave/unison? Instrument?
- Word painting: Which words/phrases are enhanced? How?
- Texture: Changes? Are vocals always at the top or doe instrumental lines weave in/out?
- Melody: Instrument? Imitation? Moves into a lower part?
- Instrumental tone colour: Different instruments for different sections? Special techniques e.g. pizzicato or mutes?
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Interpretation by the Composer
- Read the block of text at the start of Section A on the question paper
- Re-read the relevant section of text so you know what the passage of music is about
- Refer to melody & rhythm, articulation & performance, harmony, texture, structure or accompaniment etc.
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Interpretation by the Performers
LISTEN for aspects which are not printed in the score. These might include:
- Tempo changes: faster/slower than indicated, unmarked tempo changes, accelerando, ritardando, oause, rubato
- Dynamic changes
- Rhythm changes
- Pitch changes
- Accents, staccato etc.
- Particular emphasis on certain words: extra clear enunciation, rolled 'r' etc.
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