- Place where memory is held at each of the senses.
- Capacity of these registers is very large.
- The registers constantly receive information but most of this receives no attention and remains in the register for a short duration.
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- If a person's attention is one one of the sensory registers then the data is transferred to the short term memory.
- Attention is the first step to remembering something.
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Short Term Memory
- Information is held in the short term memory to be used for immediate tasks such as a maths problem.
- Short term memory has a limited duration and information will decay if not rehearsed.
- Information will also disappear from the short term memory if new information enters it, displacing the original information.
- This occurs because the short term memory has limited capacity.
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- Repetition keeps information in the short term memory but eventually repetition will create a long term memory.
- Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed a direct relationship between rehearsal in short term memory and the strength of long term memory - the more information is rehearsed the better it is remembered.
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Long Term Memory
- Potentially unlimited in duration and capacity.
- Evidence suggests memory either hasn't been made permanent or it is there but cannot be found.
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- The process of getting information from long term memory involves information passing back through short term memory.
- It is then available for use.
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Evaluation - Too simplistic
- The Working Memory Model provides evidence for multiple parts to the STM as opposed to the solitary store proposed by the Multi-Store Model.
- LTM is also more complex than the Multi-Store Model suggests e.g. episodic and procedural memories.
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Evaluation - Rehearsal may not be necessary
- Events that are so shocking, we remember them without much processing and little rehearsal.
- These are called flashbulb memories e.g. 9/11
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Evaluation - Rehearsal Maintenance vs. Information
- Craik and Lockhart argue the type of processing of information is more important than maintenance rehearsal.
- The deeper the processing, the more information is successfully stored and recalled e.g. phonetic vs. semantic processing.
- Craik and Lockhart suggested it was what was done with the information and how it was processed that influenced how well something was remembered.
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Evaluation - Supporting evidence
- Research on capacity by Miller and duration by Peterson & Peterson show there are separate long term and short term stores.
- The Multi-Store Model explains the serial position curve.
- The case study of HM supports the Multi-Store Model.
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