Motivation is an internal process which activates, guides and maintains behaviour over time.
Maslow's Hierachy of Needs:
- everyone's desire to become, everyones desires are different.
- everyone is capable of becoming.
- self-esteem, confidence, respect, achievements
- friendship, family, sexual intimacy
- security of body, employment, family, nature, resources
- breathing, food, water, sleep, sex
Deficiency needs are critical to physical and psychological well being.
Deficiency needs to be met before progressing to growth needs.
Dominate theory which looks at the reasons as to why people explain events as they do and looks at achievement.
Motivation is influenced by attributions: (3)
stability - stable (expect success/failure majority of time) / unstable (expect failure sometimes)
locus of casuality - internal (ability) /external (luck)
locus of control - in control (effort) / out of control (examiners decision)
If one suceeds it is down to ability, if other suceeds it is down to luck.
Achievement Goal Theory
Goals are a key factor of individuals intrinsic motivation.
Individuals are motivated to show off what they are good at.
Conception of ability + Goal orientation + Motivational climate = Goal involvement = Motivated behaviour
Motivated behaviour depends on Goal Involvement = Task/Mastery - Ego/Outcome
- concentrate on themselves
- personal progression
- use their potential
- learn and develop from mistakes
Mastery climate, emphasis on mastery learning and individual improvement
- success is being the best
- compettitively focused
- give up in face of failure
- don't personally develop
Performance climate, environments stress interpersonal compettition, social comparison evokes ego involvement
- Do it purely for themselves
- Independent learners / autonomous
- Purpose for others
- Not done purely for themselves
Important to facilitate and inspire to encourage intrinsic motivation.
Most self-determined if you are intrinsically motivated.
Least self-determined if you are externally motivated.
To be self-determined:
- to be in charge of ones behaviour
- need choice to be intrinsically motivated
- need to feel effective at achieving desired outcomes
- need to authentically connect with others and feel involved in the social context
Those who are self-determined:
- have greater interest
- have greater self-esteem
- more creative
Those who are intrinsically motivated will be self determined and have a high sense of autonomy, competence and relatedness.
Encourage self-determination by:
- allowing student choice
- give a degree of freedom
- help students accomplish self selected goals
- use positive feedback
- give a purpose when planning an activity