Minerals

Minerals

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Quartz

  • Colour: Colourless
  • Cleavage: 0
  • Hardness: 7
  • Density (heft): 2.65
  • Streak: None/white
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Dog tooth spar to massive
  • Crystal Shape: Hexagonal
  • Other: Demonstrates Conchoidal Fracture, second most abundant mineral after feldspar in the crust
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Calcite

  • Colour: None, white tints
  • Cleavage: 3 good, not 90
  • Hardness: 3
  • Density (heft): 2.71
  • Streak: White
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Crystalline/Massive / Rhombic
  • Crystal Shape: Tri/Hexagonal
  • Other: Effervesces with HCl, rhombic shapeLargest ever crystal found in Iceland (7x7x2m) and weighed 250 tonnes
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Olivine

  • Colour: Olive Green
  • Cleavage: None/Conchoidal
  • Hardness: 6-7
  • Density (heft): 3.2-4.3
  • Streak: Scratches plate
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Massive/ Granular
  • Crystal Shape: Orthombic
  • Other: Melts at 1200 to 1900® and is a potential medium to capture Carbon from the Atmosphere
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Muscovite

  • Colour: Silver
  • Cleavage: 1 perfect
  • Hardness: 2.5
  • Density (heft): 2.7
  • Streak: White
  • Lustre: Pearly
  • Crystal Habit: Platy/Massive
  • Crystal Shape: Monoclinic
  • Other: Flaky, largest ever sheet found in India and measured 5m x 3m. Name comes from Russia where sheets were used in place of glass and it was known as Muscovy glass
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Example

(http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ0_XvYKGbbcU0kN-92eSJ-LlqRNuigfB5M0yzQBO8eotHRW0z0) 

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Example

(http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ_JMmkCsCcRN9soUTxxOCj3QgBKZs11xxi9ys7Jk891yh396vn)(http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTA06zYinZIwlknc5fIRn2wVm2o3UrYvE9LbKUL-9Q2L78j8orw) 

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Example

(http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT2XpPaceE31WmitBIAQwnW8XD60BiT5hy6r3G6JN0l29NZs5A1)(http://www.mineralmasterpiece.com/images/Specimens/P1/MMB-567_Muscovite.jpg)

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Example

 (http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS811OapocPxxOSTGUXn7oPKH5cjowD2lMPeGBgIeSPhp7Ago10bexQ69GT)

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Biotite

  • Colour: Black/Brown
  • Cleavage: 1 perfect
  • Hardness: 2.5-3
  • Density (heft): 2.7-3
  • Streak: White
  • Lustre: Pearly
  • Crystal Habit: Platy/Massive
  • Crystal Shape: Monoclinic
  • Other: Flaky, Named after French Physicist Jean Baptiste Biot who discovered many of its optical properties.
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Haematite

  • Colour: Red/Black/Grey
  • Cleavage: Poor
  • Hardness: 5.5-6.5
  • Density (heft): 4.9-5.3
  • Streak: Cherry Red
  • Lustre: Dull Metallic
  • Crystal Habit: Botryoidal
  • Crystal Shape: Tri/Hexagonal
  • Other: Sometimes fibrous, often forms kidney shaped masses, main use is Iron Ore but also used as a pigment. Name is from Greek “Haimatites Lithes” – Blood Red Stone.
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Hornblende


  • Colour: Black-Green
  • Cleavage: 2 good @ 120
  • Hardness: 5-6
  • Density (heft): 3.0-3.5
  • Streak: Brown/grey
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Granular/hexagonal
  • Crystal Shape: Monoclinic
  • Other: forms prismatic crystals, often confused with Biotite and Augite. Found in Igneous and Metamorphic rocks.
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Augite

  • Colour: Greenish Black
  • Cleavage: 2 good @ 90
  • Hardness: 5-6
  • Density (heft): 3.2-3.5
  • Streak: Scratches
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Prismatic
  • Crystal Shape: Monoclinic
  • Other: Forms prismatic Crystals, name comes from Greek “Augites”  meaning “Brightness” as they are generally Shiny.
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Example

(http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSv-p-xVBATPlGieDpjdCaXd55btRX1uqQWiZbTEzpmuChek_Ho)

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Example

(http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTtLQKZlqHrnlR5YNQMyOHbbZan7p39P6lJ62vSCc_fYwPT5zLq)

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Example

 (http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQN9D42mb-bosXJrWFjU-TMTdl2BhtOqw6JMOht2o1aXNDuc9B9JA)

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Example

(http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTqpaR_bZdRZX75eQG14pC5nb3j_amY5FP2jvrtM4bokbw4Pw4N) (http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTT7rggW35SWXrOEpLikb2wSkQ1zqdOe8OHoJNIC9cxrysRckf1dg)

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Galena


  • Colour: Lead Grey
  • Cleavage: 3 good @ 90
  • Hardness: 2.5
  • Density (heft): 7.5
  • Streak: Lead Grey
  • Lustre: Metallic
  • Crystal Habit: Tabular
  • Crystal Shape: Cubic
  • Other: Natural mineral form of Lead Sulphide, main form of Lead Ore. Often found with Sphalerite, Calcite and Flourite
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Chalcopyrite


  • Colour: Brassy Yellow
  • Cleavage: Poor
  • Hardness: 4
  • Density (heft): 4.2
  • Streak: Black
  • Lustre: Metallic
  • Crystal Habit: Massive/Botryoidal
  • Crystal Shape: Tetragonal
  • Other: Tarnishes to Peacock colours. Often confused with Pyrite but is a darker Yellow with a greenish tinge and a more greasy lustre
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Flourite


  • Colour: None/Purple/ Yellow/Green
  • Cleavage: 4 Good
  • Hardness: 4
  • Density (heft): 2-3
  • Streak: White
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Well-formed/nodular
  • Crystal Shape:Cubic
  • Other: Fluoresces in UV, Found in veins, name from Latin “Fluo” “To flow” as it makes **** flow freely and gave name to Fluorescence
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Barite


  • Colour: White/Pink
  • Cleavage: 2 good @ 90
  • Hardness: 3-3.5
  • Density (heft): 4.5
  • Streak: White
  • Lustre: Vitreous/Resinous
  • Crystal Habit: Tabular/Fibrous
  • Crystal Shape: Orthombic
  • Other: Forms bladed crystals, often spelt as Baryte in the UK, name comes from Greek for “Heavy”
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Example

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Example

 (http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSHE-QNDK7yabMQ0J4ENC_JMGb7tpb2bsr5KnFomr8o2J8976sMJSA51XE6Pg)

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Example

 

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Orthoclase

  • Colour: Pink/Flesh
  • Cleavage: 2 good @ 90
  • Hardness: 6-7
  • Density (heft): 2.6
  • Streak: Scratches
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Tabular
  • Crystal Shape: Monoclinic
  • Other: Simple twins common, normally an Anhedral or Euhedral crystal found in Granites and Felsic Igneous rocks and Pegmatites.
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Plagioclase


  • Colour: Creamy White
  • Cleavage: 2 good @ 90
  • Hardness: 6
  • Density (heft): 2.7
  • Streak: Scratches
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Tabular
  • Crystal Shape:Triclinic
  • Other: Repeated Multiple twinning common
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Talc


  • Colour: White/Grey/ Green/Blue
  • Cleavage: 1 perfect Basal
  • Hardness: 1
  • Density (heft): 2.6-2.8
  • Streak: White/Pearly Green
  • Lustre: Waxy/Pearly
  • Crystal Habit: Foliated/Fibrous
  • Crystal Shape: Mono/Triclinic
  • Other: Widely used in cosmetics and the softest mineral known
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Diamond

  • Colour: None/Brown/Grey
  • Cleavage: 4 perfect in an Octahedral shape
  • Hardness: 10
  • Density (heft): 3.5-3.53
  • Streak: Scratches
  • Lustre: Adamantine
  • Crystal Habit: Octahedral
  • Crystal Shape: Cubic
  • Other: It takes between 1 and 3.3 Billion years for Diamonds to grow, and they form at over 140km under the surface, they are brought up but volcanic conduits
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Example

(http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQGQePGjV8gunwMS6Kyq0hwrFQo5rwuME8_0SI1p4xcWn-oHjWdlw)

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Example

(http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTk2tX4DWvkr9kGfVVA8oG9kQydwomXmdWO27_XQhS7THUIZPti) (http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRbV0P2U8lj_hCXhwZBVFTr47eNWKfLZV8imt22NwzsadYGpJFm)

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Example

(http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSpZc2RKCuszguyQ2jg9Eo-AUNjvlnkRaKhNrYbph1pjPQ3aKZD8g) (http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRFHxIeTH4SY0GVXrl4kine8vK3WkyTyDN8tVchSPtfeIzJq9FMYR9S6ZEf)

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Example

(http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTzJYTGzr29Z8LXchgmo_CDFYg20q0rvghe8SVcb8WclSNkKje-bQ)

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Gypsum


  • Colour: White/Stained
  • Cleavage: 1 good
  • Hardness: 1.5-2
  • Density (heft): 2.3
  • Streak: White
  • Lustre: Silky/Pearly
  • Crystal Habit: Massive/Elongate /Flat/ Prismatic
  • Crystal Shape: Cubic
  • Other: Fibrous/Twinned crystals common, part of the MGHP sequence, used as plaster in early Paris, hence name “Plaster of Paris”
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Halite

  • Colour: None/White
  • Cleavage: 3 good @ 90
  • Hardness: 2.5
  • Density (heft): 2.2
  • Streak: White
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Cubes/Granular /Fibrous
  • Crystal Shape: Cubic
  • Other: Tastes Salty, exists as a Salt Glacier in Iran and often found with Petroleum deposits
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Garnet


  • Colour: Red/Brown
  • Cleavage: None
  • Hardness: 6.5-7.5
  • Density (heft): 3.5-4.3
  • Streak: Scratches
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Dodecahedra
  • Crystal Shape: Cubic
  • Other: forms 12 sided crystals, can be almost any colour, rarest form is Blue from Madagascar. Name comes from Middle English “Gernet” (Dark Red) or Punica Granatum (The Pomegranate)
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Chiastolite/Andalusite


  • Colour: Pearl Grey/Pink
  • Cleavage: Poor
  • Hardness: 7.5
  • Density (heft): 3.1-3.3
  • Streak: Scratches
  • Lustre: Vitreous
  • Crystal Habit: Euhedral/Fibrous /Massive
  • Crystal Shape: Orthombic
  • Other: Forms Needle shaped crystals with a square cross section and distinctive dark cross in the centre made from inclusions
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Example

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Example

(http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSE0QOf-FpyQ9XweLk6WbMemEKDpQ6VoNNtMNnvkke43HH_uOdG)

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Example

(http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQE6m5uslv7DggCKcm99N3RW0TkedDnSUfxCMCec4q5zYvUNpWz)

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Example

(http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcREJmdPLn4n4mLd6QKxqEMSllxhNGOvlkh61ZUY7CDoRdy57ySU5Rqxqzl0iA)

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Native Gold


  • Colour: Gold/Rich Yellow
  • Cleavage: None
  • Hardness: 2.5-3
  • Density (heft): 15-19.3
  • Streak: Shining Yellow
  • Lustre: Metallic
  • Crystal Habit: Octahedra/Cubes /Dendritic
  • Crystal Shape: Isometric
  • Other: Malleable, does not tarnish easily. 75% of all gold ever naturally produced has been extracted since 1910
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Native Silver


  • Colour: Silver
  • Cleavage: None
  • Hardness: 2.5-3
  • Density (heft): 10.49
  • Streak: Silver-White
  • Lustre: Metallic
  • Crystal Habit: Cubic/Dendritic
  • Crystal Shape: Isometric
  • Other: Tarnishes to Black, used for Jewellery, tableware and disinfecting water and food as well as in medicine.
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Native Copper


  • Colour: Copper Red
  • Cleavage: None
  • Hardness: 2.5-3
  • Density (heft): 8.95
  • Streak: Copper Red
  • Lustre: Metallic
  • Crystal Habit: Varied/Octahedra
  • Crystal Shape: Isometric
  • Other: Weathers to green, name is from Greek “Kypnos” (Cyprus) which is one of the oldest copper mines in the world
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Pyrite


  • Colour: Pale Brass Yellow
  • Cleavage: Indistinct
  • Hardness: 6-6.5
  • Density (heft): 4.95-5.1
  • Streak: Green Black/Brown
  • Lustre: Metallic
  • Crystal Habit: Cubes/Octahedra
  • Crystal Shape: Cubic
  • Other: Smells of rotten eggs when smashed, also known as Fools Gold, name comes from Greek “Purites” (of fire) as it sparks when hit
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Example

(http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR52ViDuknpAarAqJHupSAYy0hJP5FLOQ5O_q1azaoh3j81nA8g)

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Example

(http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTpOOnmp3R2CPtTJKxjRqmZLtlYHtuecBTF0kS4jafVI2pWQVUTpw)(http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSGPc475eEY_FoAuSxvtzQzyAUJPmBW0klfTuzy3KbYapBOYSC0ww)

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Example

(http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcROPHUB3YASRkwmfpRZSXety5qRZszmayfSULIF9urL1Z-D9nGk)(http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTEfLtkCT6Tnc4zNpayeOgkBnDtuNsuvs4y9d9mE6Y84_M9Otoa)

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Example

(http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRXFTmV5DtaomWhO4tXUfvEXyr_TJtwqfpMJdIQW6Vjq0r0uUqo)

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