Methods of Health Promotion

Media Campaigns - Cowpe

Legislation - Dannenberg

Fear arousal - Janis & Feshback

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Methods of Health Promotion; Media Campaigns - Cow

  • What is the theory behind Cowpe?
  • What kinds of media campaigns are there?
  • What was the method in Cowpe?
  • Why was there so much fear arousal?
  • What were the findings/conclusions in Cowpe?
  • What are possible evaluation points for Cowpe?
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Methods of Health Promotion; Media Campaigns - Cow

  • The aim of a media campaign is to raise awareness about particular health behaviour e.g. smoking
  • TV, newspaper, magazine or radio advertisements
  • Field experiment of a 12 week media campaign that covered the Wales/West and North East Regions.
  • High fear arousal used a close up of disfigurement shown
  • Fire brigade stats showed a 32% reduction in chip pan fires, the reduction decreased but was still 17% less after 25 weeks. However, overexposure reduced effect.
  • 1. objective data 2. results suggest that the media campaign had been effective in raising the awareness of chip pan fires 3. longitudinal study - able to show the effects over time 4. Field experiment - good ecological validity 5. Lack of control - could there be other factors that increased awareness? 
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Methods of Health Promotion; Legislation - Dannenb

  • What is the theory behind Dannnenberg? 
  • When is a change in the law only effective? 
  • What was the method in Dannenberg? 
  • What were the findings/conclusions in Dannenberg? 
  • What are some possible evaluation points for Dannenberg?
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Methods of Health Promotion; Legislation - Dannenb

  • Changing the law can force people to adhere to a particular behaviour e.g. smoking ban 
  • Only effective if the law can be enforced 
  • Quasi/field experiment, 7000+ children from Howard/Montgomery/Baltimore County, sent questionnaire with Likert scales about bicycle & helmet use & awareness of law (parent helped child with responses). Howard County had just passed a law to make children wear cycle helmets. In one of the control groups there was an education campaign regarding the use of helmets. 
  • Responses to questionnaire about 50%, usage of cycle helmets increased from 11% to 37% from previous year, only a small increase in other 2 counties. Although many children still did not wear helmets the increase would have potentially saved lives. 
  • 1. More effective than educational campaign 2. Problems with validity of using self-report methods 3. Subjectivity of using Likert scales - everyone interprets scale differently 4. Only 50% returned questionnaire - is sample representative?
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Methods of Health Promotion; Fear Arousal - Janis

  • What is the theory behind Janis & Feshback? 
  • What sort of campaigns use fear arousal? 
  • What was the method in Janis & Feshback? 
  • What were the findings/conclusions in Janis & Feshback? 
  • What are possible evaluation points for Janis & Feshback? 
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Methods of Health Promotion; Fear Arousal - Janis

  • Based on the idea that fear can be aroused in people by suggesting to them what might happen if they do not change their behaviour. 
  • In the UK there have been a number of successful media campaigns that have used fear arousal i.e. speeding, drink driving and smoking
  • Laboratory experiment where student participants either experienced a lecture on oral hygiene, which used high, moderate or minimal levels of fear arousal (+ control group). Before and after the lecture and one week later they were given a questionnaire. 
  • Although the strong fear groups did arouse more fear, the minimal fear presentation was most effective in conformity to oral hygiene behaviour. However, other studies have shown high level of fear arousal is more effective (e.g. Leventhal) - maybe it depends on what the health behaviour is? 
  • 1. Is it ethical to use fear arousal? Should the individual be given the responsibility to make up mind based on factual information - e.g. having disturbing images on cigarette packets 2. Snap-shot study does not show whether fear arousal remains effective over time 3. Student Participants - issues of generalisability 4. Contradiction between studies about what level of fear arousal is best.
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