Memory Multi-store memory model

The key features of the Atkinson and shiffrin's MS

1. Structure of memory-memory is characterised as a flow of information through a system, information goes from one store to the other in a one way flow

2. There are 3 different types of memory

sensory: the very first store, comes in from the environment and is stored for a short period of time before it decays or moves on.

STM: second store, small amount of information, doesnt hold information for long, encoded by acoustic.

LTM: Last store, informaiton that is rehursed ends up here, and lasts a lifetime although can be lost through decay; retrival failure or interference. encoded by simatic (understanding what it is/means)

3. Each memory store has constraints-each has a capacity, and duriation, and are limited and different at each stage. each store endodes date in different way.

4. There are two control processes which transfer information-moves from sensory store to STM and then from STM to LTM

5. Inforamtion is lost from the stores in different ways- sensory store lost by no attention, STM lost by unrehursed and new replaces old, LTM lost by being similar to other information or cannot recall as no cues

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sensory store

Information enters through our senses 

capacity: 9-12 pieces

Duriation: 0.5-2 seconds

Encoding: multi-modal (see it)


Removed by: Decay (no attention)

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Short term memory

Information enters through our senses

capacity: 7 +/- 2 units

Duriation: 15-30 seconds

Encoding: Acoustic (hear)

Peterson and Peterson

Removed by: Decay (if unrehursed)

      Displacement (new replaces old)

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Long term memory

Information enters through repetition

capacity: unlimited

Duriation: lifetime

Encoding: sematic (undertand it)

Bahrick, Baddley

Removed by: inetrference (with similar information)

      Retreval failure (cannot recall as no cues)

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Sperling (1988)

Name of researcher: capacity and duriation of short term sensory store

aim: to test the duriation and capacity of sensory store

How they investigated: lab experiment, 3 rows of letters exposed for 50 milliseconds and then P's has to recall either a) all the letters (full recall) b) a selected row of letters (partial report)

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