Memory Improvement

AQA AS Psychology

*Verbal/Visual techniques and research evidence.

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Memory Improvement

Verbal techniques

  • Acronyms -R.O.Y.G.B.I.V(Richard of York...) used when learning the order of the colours in the rainbow/ the electromagnetic light spectrum.
  • Acrostics-My very easy method...Used when learning the order of the planets.
  • Rhymes- the tune of 'Twinkle twinkle' - used when learning the alphabet.
  • chunking-Baddeley -Postcodes and telephone numbers.

Research evidence

Role of organisation -Bower et al - pps were given a list of 112 words and then asked to recall. recall was 2-3 times better if the words were presented in an organised hierarchy rather than a random order.

Role of elaborative rehearsal-Craik and Tulving- Participants were given words to learn and then asked 3 questions

1) (shallow processing) ie. Are the letters in capitals ?

2)(phonemic processing) i.e. Does the word rhyme with ___?

3) (semantic processing)  i.e is it a fruit ?

Findings- the questions from group 3 were recalled best.

Visual techniques

Method of loci -learner associates words with areas of the home.i.e if given word 'Actress' and 'Jam' they would picture an image of the actress eating jam in the kitchen.

keyword method-used when associating pieces of information .i.e when learning a new language people use cards that have an image with a wod.

Mind Maps - key theme/topic in the center , surrounded by all the links

 Research evidence

Dual encoding hypothesis -PAVIO (based on the fact that brain damaged patients are able to process one but not the other ) suggested that words and images were processed separately.Therefore, concrete words will be better remembered because they are encoded twice once as an image and once as a word.

Bower-PPS who were asked to mentally link words with images could recall 80% of the words when given cued recall (given one word and asked for other ) whereas the 'non imager' were only able to recall 45%.

Concrete words - words such as Dog, Cat etc

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