Retrieval (output)- Finding encoded information that we can STORE in the brain. It means getting information from our memory system that we can then use.
Storage- When we keep information that we have encoded and then processed in some way e.g. rehearsed the information, so keeping the information to use again when necessary.
Encoding (input)- We create memory so we can take in information through our senses e.g. smell, visual, sound etc.
Multistore Model Of Memory
The SENSORY BUFFER picks up information from our senses.
This informaion is only taken further if we pay attention to it.
If we pay attention to the information then it can enter our STM. This has a limited capacity- hold 7+-2 items of information. These memories lasts from 15-20 seconds.
Once the amount of information goes above the maximum amount that can fit into our STM something happens- the item that was first into your STM will be the first FIFO.
If we REHEARSE/REPEAT the information then it could go into LONG-TERM MEMORY. Here it can be stored indefinitely and potenially lasts forever as capacity here is UNLIMITED.
Decay can happen, whereby information simply gets more and more faint, or BRAIN DAMAGE, where the memories that were physically stored in the brain are literally removed or damaged.
- The MSM cannot explain how some distinctive information gets into LTM without going through the process highlighted in it.
+There is some supporting evidence for the limited capacity of STM. Brain damaged patients can lend support to there being seperate STM and LTM stores.
Reconstructive Memory Theory
An example of Reconstructive Theory Of Memory.
Allport and Postman. Pps were shown a picture of a scruffy white man holding a razor and arguing with a black man. Pps had to recall the picture to the next pp etc. By the end, the descriptions had changed so much that it was claimed that the black man was holding the razor.
Levels Of Processing Theory
Craik and Lockhart said that LTM is a way we process information.
1. STRUCTURAL. This refers to processing things in the way they look e.g, the stucture of things.
2. PHONEMIC. This refers to processing things in relation to how they sound.
3. SEMANTIC. This refers to processing things in relation to what they mean.
Glanzer and Cunitz
Aim: To test out whether STM has a limited capacity.
Method: Army men took part in this experiment. They were shown words projected onto a screen every 3 seconds. Words consisted of 15 words.
Result: The results were that pps recalled more when they had to recall as many words as possible.
Conclusion: Results support the idea of STM having a limited capacity.
Interference and Forgetting
Proactive interference- This is when information that you have already processed interferes with new information you are trying to process, with the end result that you forget the new information.
Retrograde interference- This is when new learning interferes with material that you have already learnt that is already processed and learnt.
Context and Forgetting
CONTEXT DEPENDENT- This refers to cues that are external to us.
STATE DEPENDENT- This refers to cues that are internal to us.
Gooden and Baddeley
Aim- To test whether we need cues to help us recall information.
Method- Pps were split into 4 groups in terms of weather and they were to see how many words they could recall that they were previously given. Given 2 minutes.
Results- Pps recalled more words on dry days than on wet days.
Conclusion- Pps who had mismatch in cues encoding and retriveal were more likely to forget words from the list.
Loftus and Palmer
Aim- Researchers wanted to investigate whether language could affect memory of a car crash.
Method: Asked to watch a film including a traffic accident, They were asked to recall what had happened. Groups got questionned using "hit" and second group were given the word "smashed".
Result- When the experimenter used the words "smash" and "hit" pps gave higher speed.
Conclusion- Experiment 1: It would appear that the verbs used in questions may affect people's perception of a car accident. Experiment 2: Appeared that the wording of questions again can cause participants to report things that they never saw.
- Study lacks ecological validity in two ways: in a lab and watching the event as a film, both of which are not like real life.
+ Study was well controlled, can be confident that it was the independent variables in both studies that were affecting eyewitness recall.
Memory used in practical implication is that can be helpful in revision for examinations: Mindmaps, Imagery Method of LOCI.
Level Of Processing Study
Aim- To test levels of processing theory of memory proposed by Craik and Lockhart.
Method- Questions given to the pps with YES or NO answers, for example; Does the word rhyme with shower? GRASS
Results-Showed more people remembered words in a sentence than my rhyme and case.
Conclusion- The findings do support levels of processing.
Aim- To test idea of reconstructive memories.
Method- Told pps to read a passage of information and then pass that information to the next and so on. Story was called "War Of Ghosts".
Result- After the story had been passed on through 6 people the story had changed in many different ways and it was much shorter.
Conclusion- Reason that this could happen is due to SCHEMAS, therefore when we are reconstructing we activate these SCHEMAS ans make use of them.