Sensory memory

The first step of memory processing

Sensual memory is a conceptual storage space for sensory information

The time limit for how long memories are stored in sensory memory is short

Visual is less than one second

Auditory is a few seconds

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Iconic store

the visual sensory memory register pertaining to the visual domain and a fast-decaying store of visual information

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Echoic store

the sensory memory that registers specific auditory information (sounds)

Once an auditory stimuli is heard, it is stored in memory so that it can be processed and understood

Unlike visual memory, in which our eyes can scan the stimuli over and over, the auditory stimuli cannot be scanned over and over. Since echoic memories are heard once, they are stored for slightly longer periods of time than iconic memories

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Short term memory

The second step in memory storage

Limited in duration, only stored for a few seconds if unrehearsed

The here and now, the information we’re currently dealing with

The content of short term memory is constantly changing

Can store 7 +/- 2 unrelated items at the same time

Actively engaged

Temporarily stores information and processes info

Also known as working memory, because short term memory sounds too passive

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Phonological loop

One of Baddeley's working memory components

Where we store sound information

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Central executive

One of Baddeley's working memory components

planning, controlling, monitoring sequence of actions

Allocating attention

Oversees the encoding of information

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Episodic buffer

One of Baddeley's working memory components

Temporary storage space for info

Binding multisensory info, time

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Visuospatial sketchpad

One of Baddeley's working memory components

Mental representations of visual and spatial info

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Long term memory

Unlimited store

Any information that stays with us that we commit to memory and can use at a later time

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Explicit long term memory

·       Declarative

-          Episodic (tied to a time and place)

-          Semantic (knowledge)

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Implicit long term memory

·       non-declarative

-          Procedural (skills)

-          Conditioning (learned associations)

-          Priming (prior knowledge fills in the blanks, expectations on what to follow)

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Serial position effects

Primacy effect: more likely to remember the words in the beginning of a word list

Enter the long term memory because they have more time to be rehearsed

Recency effect: last words in a word list are remembered

The words in the middle enter the working memory but are pushed out because the capacity is limited

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information is processed so that it can be stored for later retrieval

Can be effortful (intentional, such as organising and rehearsing) or automatic (incidental, such as location, frequency and/or sequence of events, etc, unintentional encoding that requires minimal attention)

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placing newly acquired information into working memory or long term memory for later retrieval

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re-accessing information from the past, which has been encoded and stored

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Semantic network

spreading activation of related concepts, one concept primes another, we naturally link related concepts together

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Flashbulb memories

a specific type of autobiographical memory that occurs when we come across shocking information, when we will remember the context quite clearly

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Dual coding theory

we can combine different memory cues to enhance encoding

The more strategies we use, the more effect it has

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Reconstructive memory

Our memory isn’t an exact replica of what happened

Memory is an approximation, a reconstruction of the past that depends on our interpretation of the details

Memory is reconstructed to conform to what we already know/belief/expect

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mental representations of what we expect in general from an event

We extract the gist of information presented to us

We use schemas to fill in the gaps to make sense of the information

Prior knowledge/expertise plays a role in schemas

Schema-consistent and inconsistent information is maintained equally well over time

Schema-irrelevant information decayed much earlier

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Transcience (memory decays over time)

Blocking (one example is tip-of-the-tongue, forgetting may occur if the correct cues not present at retrieval; temporary inability to retrieve information that is stored in memory)

Absentmindedness (lapses in attention have an effect on the information we memorise)

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Misattribution (source confusion, assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong one)

Suggestibility (misleading info, people can be lead to remember different things depending on how events are described)

Bias (knowledge, beliefs and feelings influence recollection of experiences; consistency bias, change bias, egocentric bias, etc)

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Acquisition failure

information that isn’t attended to isn’t encoded (selective attention is the process of focusing attention on certain stimuli when several stimuli occur simultaneously)

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Availability/consolidation failure

displacement theory

working memory holds 7 +- chunks of information, once it’s full new information pushes the old information out, information is forgotten because it’s no longer available

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Trace decay theory

memory traces (engrams) decay over time, perhaps due to metabolic processes

the probability of remembering something depends on how much time has passed since learning

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Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve

recent events are easier to recall, but the rate of forgetting is also quickest shortly after learning, information is forgotten because it’s no longer available

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Interference theory

ability to remember information can be affected by information that has been/will be learned

Pro-active interference: previously learnt information will disrupt learning new memories

Retro-active interference: new memories will disrupt previously learnt information

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Retrograde amnesia

information prior to trauma is forgotten, no problem forming new memories

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Anterograde amnesia

difficulty acquiring new memories, while old memories are intact

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Context reinstatement

retrieval can be improved by re-creating the same state of mind that accompanied learning

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Infantile amnesia

Adults rarely recall events before the age of 3

Children 5-10 years frequently recall events when they were younger than 1

Earliest episodic memory is influenced by current age

Memory increases with development and maturation

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