The distinction between media and reality has collapsed, and we now live in a ‘reality’ defined by images and representations – a state of simulacrum. - Hyper reality
Postmodernism tries to come to terms with & understand a media-saturated society. The mass media, for example, were once thought of as holding up a mirror & thereby reflecting, a wider social reality. Now that reality is only definable in terms of surface reflection to the mirror.
Death of metanarratives
Marshall McLuhan 1962
Avatars merge spectatorship with participation
Postmodern works are often characterised by a lack of depth & a surfeit of surface.
They are characterized by an emphasis on fragmentation.
He sees the key features as:self-referentiality, irony, pastiche and parody.