- Long Shot - shows a lot of the scene to get perspective
- Mid Shot - "Head and Shoulders" - used in conversation to show expressions and some background
- Close Up - Usually on the face of an actor so we can grasp their emotions clearly
- Extreme Close-Up - Usually to foucs on a specific object in the frame
- High Angle - give audience a sense of power - makes things in frame small and inferior
- Low Angle - Gives people or objects in the shot power or importance
- Eye Level shot - As if the audience are in the conversation, for example.
- POV shot - We see what a character sees - PEEP SHOW
- Crane Shot - Camera held from a crane - gives a sense of perspective
Done after the shooting of footage
- Trasitions - to get from one scene to another smoothly
Speed of Editing
- Fast - creates a sense of urgency and/or excitement
- Slow - creates tension and unese
- Straight cut - creates a natural movement between shots
- Dissolve - Bringing a new shot into focus as the old shot disappears out of focus - both shots will be on screen at same time at some point
- Fade - Old image gently disappears before the new one gently reappears
- Wipe - New image comes on in a distinct shape and pushes off old image - commonly used by Star Wars
Lighting in many moving image texts is used to create a certain mood and gives the text a specific look.
- High Key Lighting - The frame being lit by multiple lights in the studio or whever - used equally for indoor and outdoor scenes
- Low Key Lighting - Some areas of the frame are lit more than other areas nd can be used to create shadow and darkness
- Coloured Lighting - These are specific in giving a particular effect to the scene. Golden glow is often used in texts to create a soft, flattering effect.
- Diegetic Lighting - Lighting that comes from a source within the scene such as a lamp.
- Location of the Light Source - Positions of lighting can eb sued for different effects. Up lighting creates strange shadow effects whereas overhead lighting creates a glow over the subject.
Sound in a moving image text covers everything such as: music, dialogue, sound effects, special effects, voiceover etc...
- Diegetic Sound - Sound that comes from something in the text
- Non-Diegetic Sound - Sounds that do not come from an object in the text - such as music of voiceover
- On Screen sound - Diegetic sound that comes from an object in the frame
- Off Screen sound - Diegetic sound that comes from an object in the text, but not in the frame
- Parallel Sound - Sounds or music which matches the action seen on screen
- Contrapuntual Sound - Sounds or music which does not match the action seen on the screen - Reservoir Dogs uses this - mostly used for comedic effect.
Everything that can be seen in the image or frame comes under Mise-En-Scene
Some aspects include
- Location and Setting - The place where the scene is set - usually to add effect or meaning to the scene
- Set Dressing - how the set is presented to the audience - will incldue props
- Costume - the clothes the actors are wearing usually show persoanlity or status, as is make-up
- Casting - The way the actors look in the frame - what sort of "look" do they give off
- Body Language - The way in which the scene is acted usually adds meanings to the text
- Colours - the colours will ahve different connotations, which could add further meaning to the text.