The Hypodermic Model
Here, the messages in media texts are injected into the audience by the powerful, syringe-like,media.
The audience are powerless to resist.
Therefore, the media works like a drug & the audience is drugged, addicted, doped or duped.
The text may influence their behaviour by what they encounter in the media text.
Uses & Gratifications model
The audience is active, using the media to gratify key needs we all have:
- The need to develop personal identity through things like role models, aspirational lifestyle, Aspects of behaviour in common life experiences, tastes in cultural life
- The need for information, which may include things like news gathering but can extend to info about people in the world, lifestyle & life choices
- The need for social interaction by sharing in the consumption & enagagment of texts with others
- The need for entertainment or escape
Sees the audience an active, here decoding a message encoded by the producer of the text to arrive at a:
- Preferred reading - The reading media producers hope the audience will take from the text
- Oppositional reading - Audience members from outside the target audience may reject the preferred reading, receiving their own alternative message
- Negotiated reading - Audiences acknowledge the preferred reading, but modify it to suit their own values & opinions
His book 'Dancing in the distraction factory' describes 6 key characteristics of music video:
- A relationship between visuals either illustrating, amplifying or condicting the lyrics
Found visuals illustrating lyrics in Kary Perrys Firework - 'Baby you're a firework' fireworks go off
Our work - 'I just keep on running' runs by each location - shows more about narrative
- There's a demand for close ups of the main artists from the record company
Found in Rita Ora 'How we Do' - shows emotion more, lets audience connect
Our work - when in forest camera pans round her - shows she's scared, allows audience to feel sympathy for her
When character walks towards camera by fountation smiles - shows flirtiness - goes with image singer is trying to present her as
Believes editing on the beat is one of the most significant characteristics of music videos
Found in Alphabeat 'Fascintation' - colours change with the beat and scenes
Our video - on 'hearbreak' clips about 1 - 2 secs, change from glow in the dark to other scenes previously, goes through all the action, shows video coming to an end and looks more professional
This theory suggests thar there are 5 narrative codes that can unravel the meaning of a narrative they are:
- Action code & enigma (answers & questions), Symbols & signs, Points of cultural references, Simple description/ reproduction, Structures
The enigma code refers to those plot elements that raise questions on the part of the viewer of the film. Our text - when somone leaves a tulip saying 'meet me' - raises questions who left it there?
The action code refers to mere actions - those plot events that simply lead to yet other actions. Our video - character goes through many different location to meet the person keep flashing back from white room. This creates suspense, as audience wonfer will she escape and wish to have the mystery explained
Tzevatan Todorov's Equilibrium
His theory believes that:
1. The fictional environment begins with a state of equilibrium (everything as it should be)
2. Then it suffers some disruption (disequilibrium)
3. New equilibrium is produced at the end of the narrative
There are 5 stages the narrative can progress through:
- A state of equilibrium - characters looking out of window peacefully
- A disruption by an event - when character see's rose saying 'Meet me'. Raises questions
- A recognition that the disorder has occurred - when character goes outside & picks up tulip
- An attempt to repair the damages of the disruption - when character goes through many different locations to meet this person. She gets kipnapped in forest
- A return or restoration of a new equilibrium - main character ends up typed up in a white room & has powder thrown at her
He introduced the notion of binary oppositions, as a a useful way to consider the production of meaning within narratives. Argued that all construction of meaning was dependent, to some degree, on these oppositions
Our text - could be Male vs Female, Love Vs Hate, as singer did love character but now hates her as she cheated on him, so trying to let her go.
Media 1 B
Audience, genre and narrative explanitions