Media Single


Moral Panics by Stanley Cohen

The higher a newspapers circulation figures the more money can be charged for advertising space in the newspaper. In competition to sell to target audiences, newspapers (particularly tabloids) not only simplify stories, but also sensationalise them. 

The over exaggerated headlines and reports interpellate the audience and make them want to read more about the event. It is argued that newspapers are responsible for causing moral panics in society.

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Folk Devil

A group or individual represented as evil or and a threat to society.

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Cultivation Theory by George Gerbner

It is repeated exposure to television over time can subtly ‘cultivates’ viewers’ perceptions of reality.

It suggests that television influences its audience to the extent that their world view and perceptions start reflecting what they repeatedly see, meaning TV is considered to contribute independently to the way people perceive social reality and will have an effect on the audience’s attitudes and values. 

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Mean World Theory by George Gerbner

George Gerbner came up with the term to describe a phenomenon whereby violence related content in television and film makes viewers believe that the world is more dangerous than it actually is. 

People who watch a lot of violent television are more likely to believe that there are more murders etc. then there are in the real world.

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Magic Circle Theory

 The "magic circle" is the space in which the normal rules and reality of the world are suspended and replaced by the artificial reality of a game world.

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Media Institutions & Audience

Media institutions are companies that make media such as: Netflix, Disney +, BBC Radio, Warner Brothers, Sixteen Films, The Sun, Nintendo, Facebook, Instagram, Spotify and Apple Music.

Audience covers:

Demographics which is age, gender, sexuality, ethicity.

Geo-demographics is where they live.

Socio-economic groups are A, B, C1, C2, D and E.

Phycographics are personality.

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Uses and Gratifications Theory

This audience theory comes from the idea that audience are a complex mixture of individuals who select media products that suit their needs.

It suggests that audiences are ACTIVE and make ACTIVE DECISIONS about what they consume in relation to their social and cultural settings and their needs.

Surveillance - our need to know about what is going on in the world

Personal relationships - our need to interact with other people

Personal identity - our need to define our identity and sense of self

Diversion - the need for escape, entertainment and relaxation

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Audience Data (PamCo, RAJAR, BARB)

PamCo measure who and how much of an audience are engaging in public media.

RAJAR measures the audience of radio.

BARB measures audiece of TV shows.

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Broadsheets and Tabloids

Broadsheets are a newspaper with a large format, regarded as more serious and less sensationalist than tabloids. (The Mail, Daily Telegraph, The Independent)

Tabloids are a newspaper that is about half the page size of an ordinary newspaper and that contains news in condensed form and much photographic matter. Usually ‘sensationalist’ and contains celebrity content.  (The Sun, Daily Mail, The Mirror)

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Primary, Secondary, Audience, Market Research

Primary: Research you do yourself. Focus groups, questionaire, interview.

Secondary: Research that already exists. Online, books, and magaizines.

Audience Research: Researching the audience for a product. Ask what they want to see, what they'd use, what they want and like.

Market Research: Look at other simular products to yours. See what already exists and see if you can make something better, See what sells and what doesn't.

Product Research: Reeaserch if there is anything that could affect you when making the product, make sure you know what you will be doing, if it can go wrong, how? Make sure facts are accurate.

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Horizontal and Vertical Integration

Horizonal is when a company buys a simular company such as Dinsey buying Pixar. This can include Disney buying cinemas, publishers, editing companies, animaters ect...

Vertical is when a company buys another company that isn't directly linked with the same stuff the coglomerate does such as Dinsey buying a coffee shop.

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Above The Line and Below The Line.

ATL advertising is big, major ways to advertise something like billboards, bus stop ads, tv ads, online ads, radio  ads.

BTL advertising is more personal and direct advertising such as things posted through your post box, emails directed to you and cookies.

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Synergy/ Cross Media Advertising

Synergy is when a company that makes different things work together to make something. Such as EA working with Fifa to make the Fifa games, they makes football kits, books, magazines ect...

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Regulation Concepts

The six broad reasons for media regulation are:

Economic: Ensuring that a society reliant on forms of communication can be maintained and evolve. 

Public order: To maintain the institutions of government and justice. 

Individual rights and interests: Ensuring that the rights of individuals, or sections, in society are protected; that these groups are not harmed by media products. 

Efficiency: Ensuring that a system is established that allows for technical standards to be agreed, innovation to occur, and connectivity and provision for all to be offered. 

Access: Allow for freedom of communication, diversity, access and freedom of choice for all individuals in the media they consume, and way they communicate. 

Free markets: To maintain the free market conditions for media services to offer competition and access, protection for consumers, and the stimulus for innovation and expansion to occur. 

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IPSO regulates magazines and newspapers.

PEGI regulates games inside of Europe.

BBFC regulates films in the uk.The bbfc can limit what under 18 year olds can see online.

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Regulation Theory by Livingstone & Lunt

Livingstone and Lunt believe that you can't really regulate media because people will want to watch whatever they want even if you say they can't. If they are 15, but want to see an 18 rated film, they'll just lie to watch it at the cinema or watch it illegally online. Saying no makes them want it more.

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The Human Centipede 2 (case study)

The BBFC had to cut stuff out of the film to make it more appropriate. They made 32 cuts to the movie. The first time the film was submitted to the BBFC it was banned until it was reedited. There are slightly different versions in other countries.

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Batman The Dark Night (case study)

People thought that a age 12A rating was too low. People didn't like the knives. BBFC got over 200 complaints. The joker kept threatening people.

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Moral Panics by Stanley Cohen

Moral Panic is a way newspapers get their newspaper to sell. They sensationalise news stories to get sales. The headlines can scare people into believing bad things will happen. The newspapers write something, people worry and believe it so because people believe it will happen, it comes true and actually happens.

An example is football hooliganism being reported in the news before an upcoming match, they make the police go out and protect the streets, the hooligans go out, the police panics which creates football hooliganism.

Folk Devil is a group or individual represented as evil or and a threat to society.

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Cultivation Theory by George Gerbner

Cultivation theory suggests that repeated exposure to television over time can subtly ‘cultivates’ viewers’ perceptions of reality.
George Gerbner theorised that TV is a medium of the socialisation of most people into standardised roles and behaviours.

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Fortnite (case study)

People say that Fortnite is too violent and it makes children act out at school. It is rated a 12. People blame games like this on school shootings.

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Bandura - Bobo Doll Experiment (case study)

Showing a child an adult being agressive the child will copy them. The experiment was executed via a team of researchers who physically and verbally abused an inflatable doll in front of preschool-age children, which led the children to later mimic the behaviour of the adults by attacking the doll in the same fashion.

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David Gauntlett

People don't think about what the kids are experiencing other than the games, people assume that games are the reason for kids acting bad when other things can cause that to happen.

Children mostly know what games they are doing.

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Narrative Structure- Todorov

Equilibrium, Disruption, Recognition Repair the Damage and Equilibrium.

Equilibrium is the start, everything is ok and normal.

Disruption is when something happens normally something bad.

Recognition repair the damage is when they try and fix it.

The new equilibrium is the new normal and the end of the film.

Examples: Hawkey is happy at the start, he then turns around and notices his family have vanished.

ironman and Nebula are happy in space, they run out of fuel which is bad, they prepare to die, being sad and counting down the days is there new equilibrium.

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Binary Opposite - Levi Strauss

Things that are oppsites. 

Examples: Blue- sad. (ironman saying goodbye)

Yellow-Happy (Captain Marvel coming back)

Thanos- bad

Ironman- good.

Thanos is strong because he won.

Ironman is weak because he lost.

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Enigma Code - Barthes


Who is Thanos?

Who is Captain Marvel?

Who is Nebula?

How did Daniel Blake get hurt?

Where are the other Avengers?

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Narrative Positining

Things the audeince can see before the characters see it.

We can see the yellow glow coming from Captain Marvel before Ironman does.

We know where the rumbling noise is coming from before Captain America does.

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Counter Arguments

David Gauntlett - He think that people blame the media for bad behaviour rather than the childrens upbringing. The persons (upbringing, lifestyle, age, feelings) could be the reason for them behaving badly, not just the games they play. He says that people see kids as stupid and unaware of what they are seeing which is untrue and he says that people always blame the games rather than the real stuff that is going on in the world like wars or stuff on the news.

Henery Jenkins - He believes that seeing violence or weird things on tv can help us learn things we wouldn't normally know about. He says that playing games is good because it's the only type of media that we can control and make options in unlike watching tv.

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Social Media tools

Social media tools are things that are used within a social media such as thngs like: blogs, pictures, group chats, chatrooms, microblogging services, tags ect...

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Editing and Mise en Scene

Use key termanologly: Different camera angles (wide angle, close up, extreme close up, shallow space, extreme wide shot) CGI, fast/slow pace editing, montage, transitions.

Mise en Scene:, lighting and filter, body language, setting, props, position in frame.

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Editing and Mise en Scene

Use key termanologly: Different camera angles (wide angle, close up, extreme close up, shallow space, extreme wide shot) CGI, fast/slow pace editing, montage, transitions.

Mise en Scene:, lighting and filter, body language, setting, props, position in frame.

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