• Created by: lilac123
  • Created on: 01-04-21 10:48

Mannheim techniques

-Mannheim was the scene of extraordinary changes in orchestral technique and compositional styles, developments that were to affect the course of musical history. One of these new techniques was in the treatment of dynamics.

-In the Baroque era, the dynamic levels were generally terraced. Under Stamitz, the Mannheim orchestra explored the expressive possibilities of the gradual growing crescendo - a device used previously in Baroque vocal music but not with a group of instruments.

-Other techniques Mannheim also implemented was the Mannheim rocket and Mannheim sigh.

-A key example that demonstrates a variety of Mannheim techniques is Stamitz Symphony No.2 (1750) where the dramatic opening of the first movement displays typical traits of the Mannheim style with three opening tonic chords in rhythmic unison (sometimes called Mannheim hammerstroke) followed by sudden a drop to piano that follows a Mannheim crescendo. 

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Influence upon Haydn

-The Mannheim Court Orchestra orchestral had a significant influence upon Haydn, a Classical composer, as he used a number of these techniques throughout his career, in particular the Mannheim sigh, where the orchestra suddenly stops, resulting in a dramatic silence.

-This was used widely by Haydn to create a sense of humour; for example, in Haydn’s Symphony No.104, (1795)  in the first movement at bar 242-243 there are two bars of sudden silence.

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Influence in Romantic period

The Mannheim techniques expanded into the Romantic period, with the Mannheim Rocket being used in Schubert’s Symphony No.8, movement 1 (1823)

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Influence upon Beethoven

-Another composer Mannheim influenced through its’ wide ranging techniques was Beethoven.

-Although the Mannheim Crescendo was less often used, in the "Allegro molto e con brio" of Beethoven's Sonata Pathetique (1798), it begins with a figure which seems inspired by this gesture.

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Influence upon mozart

-The Mannheim Rocket- this is simply an arpeggiated chord moving up in rhythm. 

-Finale of Mozart's 40th Symphony.  The movement begins with a Mannheim Rocket.

-orchestra was pioneering the latest instruments: clarinet (Mozart became interested in this instrument- hearing them at a concert- brilliant effect flutes and clarinet make)

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Orchestra advances

-Stamitz wanted to turn Mannheim orchestra into the best in Europe (extensive training for orchestra member)

-rare wind players

-Mozart visits Mannheim in 1778, Cannabich has love and ore under him

*more solo players than perhaps any other orchestra in Europe

-2nd half of 18th century (became celebrated-discipline was much admired, new music: more complex forms, emphasis on variety of dynamics and rhythms that hadn’t been heard before)

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