Living and Working Conditions

IR reforms

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 13-02-09 08:00

Before reforms

Living:

  • Living in basements: 12-15 per basement room
  • In Manchester, 63 of 2755 families had more than 5 people to one bed
  • Layout meant lavitories and dung hills were close to water supply.

Working:

  • 13 hour days
  • No breaks
  • Children worked from age 6 in some factories.
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Why?

  • Factory owners built houses - Cut costs=bigger profits
  • Migration from countryside - Pressure of number=slums
  • Surplus Workers (Pool of Labour): Don't Like it? Replaced with cheaper worker
  • Laissez Faire: TP (voters) would not directly benefit- what gov. would penalise?
  • Their own fault
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How were conditions improved

Factory Acts:

  • 1833: No U9s. 9-13yro 8 hour days. Inspectorate. No registration of Births. Only 1 inspect.
  • 1844: Machinery fenced in. Expensive
  • 1847: YP and Women 10hr days. Shift system. Upset parents.
  • 1850: No shifts. Breaks.

Mines Act 1842:

  • (only) 1 inspector employed, couldn't go underground.

Public Health:

  • Boards of Health - 182 est., 72 planning, 13 completed.

Laissez Faire: didn't have to introduce any reform

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