- Living in basements: 12-15 per basement room
- In Manchester, 63 of 2755 families had more than 5 people to one bed
- Layout meant lavitories and dung hills were close to water supply.
- 13 hour days
- No breaks
- Children worked from age 6 in some factories.
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- Factory owners built houses - Cut costs=bigger profits
- Migration from countryside - Pressure of number=slums
- Surplus Workers (Pool of Labour): Don't Like it? Replaced with cheaper worker
- Laissez Faire: TP (voters) would not directly benefit- what gov. would penalise?
- Their own fault
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How were conditions improved
- 1833: No U9s. 9-13yro 8 hour days. Inspectorate. No registration of Births. Only 1 inspect.
- 1844: Machinery fenced in. Expensive
- 1847: YP and Women 10hr days. Shift system. Upset parents.
- 1850: No shifts. Breaks.
Mines Act 1842:
- (only) 1 inspector employed, couldn't go underground.
- Boards of Health - 182 est., 72 planning, 13 completed.
Laissez Faire: didn't have to introduce any reform
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