Life Stages and Developments

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Infancy 0-3 Years

-fast developmental stage- body changes and grows
-completely dependent on carers
-automatic reflexes such as blinking 
-gross motor skills- control of large muscles
-fine motor skills- control of smaller muscles

-use and understand language
-use their own language pattern
-carer is important for stimulation, babies learn by handling, listening and looking

-simple emotions, have a strong bond with their carer (if not they may be disruptive)

-bonding- get to know main carers face, voice, smell and touch
-0-2 they play alone
-2- parallel play
-3+ co-operative play

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Childhood 4-10 Years

-lose baby shape
-good balance, can climb and jump etc
-ages 5-7 growth spurt

-can understand concepts (development of brain and mind)
-can groups things together such as colours and size etc
-ask lots of questions- interested in everything
-learn between right and wrong
-more complex activities, mix different skills and regonise words and learn communication skills

-learn to cope with their own feelings and others
-tantrums- lack of emotional response
-age 10- can cope with emotions such as jealousy
-emotional characteristics: love, fear, anger, jealousy, value, respect

-attend school- mix with other children
-lots of social relationships or a few special friends
-play is important: develops practical, social and intellectual skills

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Adolescence 11-18 Years

-hormones cause changes (for girls- start menstruating)
-puberty- taller and weight gain
-girls- breasts develop, hips widen, pubic hair
-boys- broader shoulders, pubic hair, voice deepends

-imagine the future and solve problems
-can understand complex concepts
-decision making

-mood swings, hormones are out of balance
-look for a sense of identity
-react against parents views and ideas

-independent of families, dependent on friends
-strong desire to belong to a group
-explore their sexuality
-conflict/arguments with parents

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Adulthood 19-65 Years

-20's & 30's- reproductive peak
-40's- physical changes include menopause, fertility declining etc

-skills and abilities increased if exercised (getting a job)
-knowledge and widsom increased
-better at problem solving

-look for steady, satisfying relationships
-have children- protective over them
-live alone- independence develops

-have children- go out less with friends, have social relationships at home
-balance the need for money with the need of the family
-relate to parents as equals
-build working relationships 

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Later Adulthood 65+ Years

-subtle ageing process
-brittle bones, weak muscles, hearing and eyesight deteriorates, more susceptible to hypothermia 

-may need support when gaining new abilities
-good store of knowledge and wisdom
-may have difficulty remembering things, slower reactions and may become confused

-self-concept changes- may become depressed
-bereavements- death of friends
-health problems- self esteem decreases 

-more time to take up new hobbies and meet people
-health problems- cannot leave the house
-family and friends for support, good bond with grandchildren etc 

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