Plato on the soul
1.Reason, The reason part of our soul is the part that searches for the truth and overall is in control of the rest of our soul.
2.Spirit, Spirit is what controls our emotion, it is the reason we get aggressive and why we often feel we should do the honourable thing.
3.Desire or mercenary, we have different types of desire – necessary desire such as food, Luxury desire such as a new piece of clothing, perverted desires and money.
- The body and soul are separate; this is because the soul is immortal and the body is mortal.
- The soul as imprisoned in the body and says that it is set free at death.
- The goal of the soul is to join the world of the forms, as all real knowledge of the forms comes from our souls memories.
- The physical world is where the body exists and where we receive sense impressions.
- The soul on the other hand is immaterial and capable of knowing eternal truths beyond the world.
Aristotle on the soul
Faculties of the soul (PLIND)
Nutrition – Ability to provide for nutrition and reproduction
Perception – Awareness of surroundings/ability to perceive
Locomotive – Ability to move/change surroundings
Intellective – Ability to reason
Desiderative – Ability to consciously want/desire
- No afterlife or immortality of the soul.
- Body and soul can't be seperated, when the body dies, so does the soul.
- The soul is what turns the physical form into a living thing.
He argued that the soul is not a substance but is the form of the body, to explain how the soul and body cannot be separated he used three examples:
1. An imprint into some wax
2. An Axe
3. An Eye
Basically the soul is what makes the object, the object. The point of an eye is that it can see, the point of axe is that it can chop; the point of the body is the soul.
Richard Dawkins on the soul
The soul is a mythological concept that has been invented to explain what we do not understood – the mystery of consciousness.As he rejects the idea of a soul he therefore rejects the idea of an afterlife.
For Dawkins, death is just something that will happen, the time in which everything we are stops moving and there is nothing. He argues that we are an incredibly lucky accident, that we should live life to the full and finally stop relying on a false comfort that we are too ‘special’ to just die and believing somehow we will survive the death of our body and carry on into some sort of heavenly place. He states that the only way we can continue after death is through the memories of those we left behind and genes if we have had children. In his research he states that a genes can last a million years being passed from parent to child over and over again, on the other hand some genes do not even make it past the first generation.
Dawkins believes that death should not be feared. It is the ‘extinguishing’ of our consciousness and it will be no different to the time before we were born. We will not know about it or experience it.