Latin Grammar

Grammar

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  • Created by: Bob
  • Created on: 08-06-11 11:42

Nouns

1st            2nd            3rd

Nominative     puella servus        rex

Accusative      -am  -um -em

Genitive -ae -i -is

Dative -ae -o -i

Ablative -a -o -e

Plural

Nominative -ae -i -es

Accusative -as -os -es

Genitive -arum -orum -um

Dative -is -is -ibus

Ablative -is -is -ibus

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Pronouns

Nom ego tu nos vos

Acc me te se nos vos se

Gen mei tui sui nostrum vestrum sui

Dat mihi tibi sibi nobis vobis sibi

Abl me te se nobis vobis se

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haec/ille

hic haec hoc ille illa illud

hunc hanc hoc illum illam illud

huius huius huis illius illius illius

huic huic huic illi illi illi

hoc hac hoc illi illa illo

hi hae haec illi illae illa

hos has haec illos illas illa

horum harum horum illorum illarum illorum

his his his illis illis illis

his his his illis illis illis

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Active Verb Endings

Present -  Perfect- Imperfect- Pluperfect-

o i bam eram

s isti bas eras

t it bat erat

mus imus bamus eramus

tis istis batis eratis

nt erunt bant erant

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Future verb endings

bo OR em Future passive-bor  OR  ar

bis es baris eris

bit et bitur etur

bimus emus bimur emur

bitis etis bimini emini

bunt ent buntur entur

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Passive Verb Endings

Pluperfect Perfect Imperfect   Present

tus eram tus sum bar r

tus eras tus es baris ris

tus erat tus est batur tur

ti eramus ti sumus bamur mur

ti eratis ti estis bamini mini

ti erant ti sunt bantur ntur

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Subjunctives

infinitive + ending = imperfect 

isse/esse + ending = pluperfect

wrong vowel = present

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Infinitives

Present = _____re

Past = ___isse

Future = ____urum esse

Present verb + accusative noun + infinitive 

= he/she/it (verb)s THAT the (noun) is (doing the infinitive)

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Ablative Absolute

ablative noun + participle (with the same case/endings)

= with the (noun) having been (verb)ed  

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Time and Place Phrases

ablative of time = at,in,on

accusative of time = for

accusative of place = towards, to 

ablative of place =  from

locative (-ae,-is,-i) = in/at

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Participles

Present - 

-ans, -ant, -ens, -ont, -eun + ending = ____ing

Perfect -

last principle part of a verb, follows first and second declensions (-us,-a,-um) =  having been _____ed

Future-

-urus, -ura, -urum, -uro, -uris, -uri = about to ____

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Deponent verbs

Passive in form, active in meaning

conor, conari, conatus est = to try, vereor,-ari,-atus est = to fear

hortor,-ari,-atus est = to urge, precor,-ari,-atus est = to pray

videor,-ari,-atus est = to seem, egredior,-ari,-atus est = to go out

ingredior = to go in, progredior = to go forward, regredior = to go back

loquor,-ari,-atus est = to speak, morior,-ari,-atus est = to die

patior,-ari,-atus est = to suffer, proficiscor,-ari,-atus est = to set out

sequor,-ari,-atus est = to follow, utor,-ari,-atus est = to lose

orior,-ari,-atus est = to rise

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Adverbs

quam ____errime = as ___ as possible

adverb comparative  superlative

bene melius optime

male peius pessime

magnopere maius maxime

pallum minor minime

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Adjectives

-ior/-ius = more (endings follow 3rd declension) 

-issimus, -illimus, -errimus = most/very (endings follow 1st and 2nd declensions)

Irregulars - 

Adjective Comparative Superlative

bonus melior optimus

malus peior pessimus

magnus maior maximus

parvus minor minimus

multus plus plurimus

multi plures plurimi

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Ut

Ut + subjunctive = in order to _____

tam = so

tantus = so great

adeo = to such an extent          + ut + subjunctive  = ____ that (subjunctive)

tot = so many

talis = of such a kind

ita = in such a way

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