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Latin Grammar ­ Answers
Cum + Subjunctive
1. The subjunctive is used to express wishes, ideas and intentions. There is no subjunctive mood in English so there
is no one single translation.
2. The pluperfect subjunctive is formed from the perfect stem + isse + person endings e.g.:
a. Portav…

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9. Purpose clauses explain the aim with which an action is done, e.g. she worked hard in order to get an A*. In
English the infinitive or the phrase `in order to' is used.
10. Latin uses the word `ut' with the imperfect subjunctive ­ e.g.
Senex ad urbem ambulavit…

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Present Passive: The passive endings are added to the present stem ­ portor ­ I am carried/ I am being carried
Imperfect Passive: The passive endings are simply added to the imperfect stem ­ portabar ­ I was being carried
Perfect Passive: Two elements are required: the PPP and the…

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E.g. haec verba legere diu conabar - I was trying to read these words for a long time
Imperator milites suos breviter hortatus est ­ The emperor briefly encouraged his soldiers.


20. There are only a few semi deponent verbs on the A402 vocabulary list:
Gaudeo ­ I rejoice
Audeo…

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Nuntius dicit naves in portum navigare ­

The messenger says the ships sail into the port

Nuntius dicit naves in portum navigavisse ­

The messenger says the ships have sailed into the port

Nuntius dicit naves in in portum navigaturas esse ­

The messenger said the ships are about to…

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27. Essential Passive/ Deponent Tense Endings:

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