Vital Latin

HideShow resource information


R     RIS     TUR    MUR      MINI        NTUR

4 a) cena nostra a coquo nunc paratur=Our dinner was now prepared by our cook.

   b) Multas scelera in hac urbe cotidie committuntur=Many crimes were commited in this city every day

   c) Laudantur; ducitur;rogatur;mittuntur=They were being praised;he was being lead;he was being asked; the were being sent

Imperfect passive

candidati ab amicis salutabantur=The cantidates were being greeted by the friends

1 of 16

Present Participle

amans amantis= loving

monens monentis=warning

regens regentis=ruling

audiens audientis=hearing

1. agricola filiam in ripa sedentem invenit= the farmer found the daughter sitting on the bank.

2. feminae corpus in ora iacens viderunt= The women saw the body lying on the shore

3. amicos ridentes audivi= i heard his friends laughing

4. puella fugiens in silvas cucurrit= the girl ran fleeing into the woodsPe

2 of 16

Past Participle

usually passive- means  e.g. amatus=loved, having been loved

Principle parts= e.g. duco, ducere, duxi, ductum-past partciciple

1. cives oppugnati ab hostibus, in montes cucurrerunt= the citizens, having been attacked by the enemy, ran into the mountains.

2.Magister librum, a pueris lectum, invenit=the teacher found the book having been read by the boys.

3.Puellas, a magistro vocatas, non video=I do not see the girls called by the teacher.

4. amicus, invitatus a meis parentibus, pecuniam mihi dedit= The friend, having been invited by my parents, gave me the money

3 of 16

Perfect Passive/pluperfect passive

Perfect Passive

amatus+ present of sum       amatus sum      =          i was loved

Pluperfect Passive

imperfect of sum         amatus eram   =    i had been loved

1. parati erant=plu      2. paratus est=perf       3. scriptum erat=plu



amor/amaris/amatur/amamur/ amamini/ amatur  = i am loved


amabar/amabaris/amabatur/amabamur/amabamini/amabantur  = i was being loved 


amabor/amaberis/amabitur/amabimur/amabimini/amabuntur  = i will be loved


amatus sum/ amatus est/ amatus est/ amatii summus/ amati estis/ amati sunt  = i was loving/have been


amatus eram/amatus eras/ amatus erat/ amati eramus/ amati eratis/ amati erant  = they have been loved

4 of 16

Deponent verbs

they look passive but they are actually active

e.g. amor-i am loved (passive)       loquor- i speak (active)

1 monebatur (passive)= he was being warned

   sequebatur (active)= he was following

2  amatus est (passive)= he was loved

    conatus est( active)= he tried

5 of 16

Ablative Absolute

Noun and participle in the ablative

e.g. epistola scripta- with the letter having been written

       omnibus spectantibus- with everybody watching

1. cena parata= with the dinner having been prepared

2. his dictis= having been spoken

3. servis loquentibus= with the slaves speaking

4.puero ad villam adeunte= with the boy approaching the house

5. militibus ab hostibus oppugnatis=with the soldier having been attacked by the enemy

6.omnibus verbis consulis commotis= with everyone having been moved by the words of the consul

6 of 16

past,futue,presnt participles

1. feminae pecuniam in via iacentem viderunt=The women saw the money lying in the street.

2. servus cibum in triclinium portaturus subito ad terram cecidit= the slave suddenly fell to the ground, about to carry the food into the dining room.

3. puella pecuniam a patre relictam invenire non poterat= the girl could not find the money which had been left by her father

7 of 16

purpose clause & result clause

purpose clause=ut- in order to

                           ne-in order not to

Results clause = sign post words:


/ tantus=so big/

  tot= so many/ 

 totiens= so often/ 

 talis= of such a kind 

/  adeo= so much/ 

 ita=in such a way/ 

sic= in such a way.   

e.g That soldier recieved so many wounds that he was not able to walk


8 of 16


indirect Question= "The master asked me what i was doing"= "magister me rogavit quid facerem"

direct Question="what are you doing"-" quid facitis"

Question Words:

  • How-quomodo       
  • why-cur
  • who-quis
  • what-quid
  • how big?-quantus
  • how many-quot
  • when-quando
  • how often- quotiens
  • what sort of- qualis
  • where- ubi
  • where to- quo
  • whether- num
9 of 16

Examples of Indirect Question

1. eum rogavi quid faceret

2. parentes scire volebant cur in urbem iter faceremus.

3. Nescivi quando ceteri advenissent.

4.Magister pueros rogavit quot milites vidissent.

5. pater filium narravit quomodo graeci Troim superavissent

6.eos rogavi utrum ad theatrum venirent an domi manerent

7.mater scire volebat quid puella in culina pararet.

10 of 16

Examples of indirect Commands

1. magister pueros puellasque rogavit ut diligenter laborarent

2.eis imperavi ut domi septem dies manerent.

3. parentes me monuerent ne malis pueris loquerer

4. dux suis imperavit ut cognoscerent quid accidisset

5.eos oravit ne se solum in castris relinquerent.

11 of 16

ut/ne + more examples

1. milites cives occiderunt ut bellum finirent

2. tam fessus eram ut magistrum audire non possem.

3.magister mihi persuasit ut librum legere deberem.

4. magister discipulos rogavit ut statim tacerent bellis totiens pugnaverunt, ut donum redire vellent.

6. tantum vinum senex biberat ut in via laberetur et sub equo caderet.

7.vosne rogavi ut me diligenter audiretis?

12 of 16


purpose clause- ut/ne

result clause- ut/ne+signpost

indirect command- commanding words

indirect question- question words

cum- when/since/although

1. puella amicae persuasit ut secum domi maneret

2. cives fortiter pugnaverunt ne urbs caperetur

3. cum hostes castra oppugnavissent

4. magister nesciebat quid discipuli fecissent

5. pater filio imperavit ne cum amicis in urbem ambularet

6.pueri tam diligenter laborabant ut magister eos laudaret.

13 of 16



time how long- accusitive

duas horas= for two hours



primo die- on the first day

place- ad italiam- to italy

            roman- to rome

            ab italia- from rome

             roma- from rome

Locative- romae- at rome

                  Lodinii- in london

                    Roman- to rome

                   Roma- from rome

                   romae- at rome

14 of 16

Indirect Statement

statement:the boys are stupid= pueri stulti sunt

indirect statement: the teacher said that the boys were stupid

indirect statements are introduced by van words: words above the neck.

dico-i say

audio- i hear

****- i think

scio- i know

present-amare- to love

present passive- amari- to be loved

perfect-amavisse- to have loved

perfect passive- amatus esse- to have been loved

future- amaturus esse- to be about to love


15 of 16

examples of indirect statements


1.ulixes sciebant se uxorem suam diu non vidisse

2. polyphemus vidit graecos cibum suum cepisse

3. graeci sciebant se a polyphemo conspectos esse

4. comites ulixes sciebant se malos fuisse

5. graeci viderunt eurylochum timere

16 of 16


No comments have yet been made

Similar Latin resources:

See all Latin resources »