How did Korea come to be divided?
- Korea was under Japanese control until 1945
- Japan was defeated in the war, and the Soviets had also joined at the last minute
- US soldiers moved in from the South in 1945 while Soviets moved in from the North
- Country was split into two zones along the 38th Parallel
- Soviets set up a Communist government in the North under Kim Il Sung
- Americans allowed elections in the South and an anti-Communisy government was set up under Syngman Rhee
- Americans and Soviets withdrew their soldiers in 1949
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How did the Korean War start?
- In 1949 the Communists in China won the civil war and China became Communist
- Kim Il Sung was encouraged to think he could easily get help invading the South and then he would be the leader of a united Communist Korea
- Russian and Chinese soldiers weren't sent to help, but the North Korean army was already equipped with Russian weapons
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What happened during the Korean War?
- June 1950. North Korean troops invaded South Korea. They captured Seoul and pushed South. Only the Pusan Pocket was left under South Korean control
- South Korea asked UN for help
- Soviets were refusing to attend meetings as the UN wouldn't accept the Communists as the real Chinese government. If they'd been there they could have voted against help to South Korea and stopped it
- USA pushed UN into sending help. 16 countries sent help but main force from USA, because of the Truman Doctrine.
- They feared a domino effect- if South Korea became Communist, others may as well
- General MacArthur(US) organised seaborne landing at Inchon in September 1950
- It was an important road and rail centre, and the North Korean's supply lines passed through it. N. Korea army had to retreat and was almost destroyed.
- UN forces advanced North across the 38th Parallel into North Korea and got close to the Chinese border. China saw this as a threat
- A huge Chinese army attacked the UN in North Korea by surprise in November 1950.
- UN forces were driven back into South Korea, and only a heavy US bombing slowed down Chinese advance
- MacArthur proposed the A Bomb and was sacked
- Massive US bombings finally stopped the Chinese below the 38th Parallel
- Jan 51-Jul 53- stalemate with frequent attacks but no gains
- 1953- ceasefire but no permanent treaty
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- UN looked strong-successfully interefered to stop North Korean attack
- America showed power and strength - had upheld the Truman Doctrine
- No direct fighting between US and USSR soldiers
- Enormous casualties in Korea: as many as 4 million died, including civilians
- Cold War had spread from its starting point in Europe into Asia
- Communism contained, but North Korea still Communist
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