Key assumptions for approaches

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  • Created by: jasminexx
  • Created on: 30-10-14 16:29

Behaviourist approach

  • Behaviour is learned from the enviroment .
  • Behaviour is dertemined by reinfrocement and punshiment of past learning experiences.
  • Observable behaviour not minds should be studied .
  • Psychology should investigate the laws of learning .
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Social learning theory

  • Mediational processes , which lie between stimulus and response ,influence our behaviour.
  • Observational learning has four conditions : attention , retention ,motor reproduction , motivation.
  • Learning can occur by observing role models in the enviroment.
  • Learning can be a result of direct reinforcement and indirect , or vicarious reinforcement .
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Biological approach

  • Behaviour and thought processes have an innate , biological basis.
  • The mind and the brain are the same.
  • Human genes have evolved to adapt behaviour to the enviroment.
  • Human charateristics (e.g intelligence) are due to our gentic make-up.
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Cognitive approach

  • Mental processes lie between stimuls and response.
  • Humans are information processors.
  • Humans actively organise and manipulate information from the enviroment.
  • The mind operates in the same way as a computer - both encode,store and output data.
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Psychodynamic approach

  • Unconscious porcesses , of which we are unaware , determine our behaviour.
  • Instincts, or drives , motivate our behaviour and energise the mind .
  • Childhood experiences determine adult personallity .
  • Personality has 3 parts - id , ego and superego.
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Humanistic approach

  • Humans should be viewed as a whole and not reduced to component parts.
  • Humans are active agents - able to control and determine thier own development.
  • Humans strive towards achiveing self-actualisation.
  • To be psycholigcally healthy , the real self and ideal self must be congurent . 
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