IPM Revision Cards

  • Created by: Ambroziac
  • Created on: 24-04-20 10:02

Paper and Boards

SOURCES: Cellulose fibres used to make paper from bamboo, flax, wood and cotton

Alternatively, anything fibrous works (elephant dung). Generally, wood gives best results due to stronger fibres. Hardwood (deciduous) produce short, weak fibres, softwood (coniferous) produce long, strong fibres (usually use fir or spruce for paper)

PULPING: Making paper requires making pulp from debarked, chipped wood

Pulp is a mixture of cellulose fibres and water. Making it requires adding a chemical solution to the solution. Cooking it under heat creates a fibrous liquid called pulp. Bleach or dye can be added at this stage to change the colour of the paper.

SIZING: Further additives are added to make the paper less absorbent

The 2 types of sizing are internal and surface. Internal reduce absorbency, surface increase strength and printability. Unsized paper is called waterleaf

DRAINING AND ROLLING: The pulp is dried on a mesh where water can drain away. It passes through the squeezing and drying rollers to dry itself, and then the calendering roller where additives are added

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Paper and Board Production

PRODUCTION: It takes roughly 25 trees to produce 1 tonne of paper, a normal person uses about 200kg of paper a year or 5 trees

RECYCLING: As trees grow they take in CO2 and emit Oxygen. Felling trees and pulping requires a lot of energy, but recycling paper require 40 - 70% less energy. If paper isn't recycled, it gives out methane in landfill.

TREE-FREE PAPER: A 4,000 year old plant called kenaf is a new crop in paper production, it is fast growing, absorbs more COthan trees and is resistant to pests and disease. Kenaf pulp is naturally white so it requires less bleaching.

ETHICALLY SOURCING MATERIALS: Paper and boards sources from sustainable plantations will be stamped with the FSC or PEFC stamps, this reduces deforestation and helps protect the environment

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Functionality and aesthetics

STOCK FORMS: Papers and boards are available in 3 main formats; rolls, sheets and ply. Rolls are most commonly used in the printing industry, sheets in consumer goods and ply comes in roll or sheet form.

STANDARD SIZES: Paper and boards come in 3 ISO sizes; A series for home goods, B series for the printing agency and C series for envelopes. Standard sizes are often cheaper and easier and products such as frames and printers can have standardised sizes.

STANDARD WEIGHTS: Papers are measured by weight,grams per square metre, GSM, boards in thickness, Microns, which are 1/1ooomm.

WORKING WITH PAPERS: With papers you can Cut, fold, score, reform, deform, and add perforations.

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Types of paper

  • Grid paper A ready printed grid sheet with vertical and horizontal lines on it. These lines help working drawings. These grids are measured in millimetres. Used for working drawings. 80 - 100 gsm
  • Cartridge paper It is more expensive than copier paper. It is creamy white paper, slight texture usually . Used for drawing but can be used with paint as it has a good quality surface for pens, pencils and markers. It can also be used with watercolours, pastels, crayons, inks and gouache. 120-150 gsm
  • Layout paper Thin transparent paper with a smooth surface. Used for sketching and developing ideas. It is translucent so ideas can be traced and altered. Used for the preparation of final ideas and is used for tracing usually. 50 gsm
  • Tracing paper Transparent, hard and strong. It is good for tracing fine details as it is translucent. Used for working drawings. 60/90 gsm
  • Photocopier paper Fairly cheap when bought in bulk and is available in a range of colours. It is also used for photocopying and inkjet printing usually. It can also be used with watercolours, pastels, crayons, inks and gouache. 80 gsm
  • Bleed proof paper Bleed proof paper is similar to cartridge paper but it is particularly good at separating water based paints and pens to stop bleed. Used in for important presentations where quality is needed. 120-150 gsm
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Types of board

  • Duplex board Duplex board is a cheaper version of white board; it also provides different textures for printing. Used in food packaging as recycled materials cannot be used for this purpose. 230 - 420 gsm
  • White board White board is a strong medium it is bleached so it provides a good surface for printing. Used for good quality packaging and book covers. 200 - 400 gsm
  • Ink jet card Ink jet card is treated so that it can go through all types of inkjet printers. Used for high quality print finishes on inkjet printers only. 120 - 280 gsm
  • Cardboard Cardboard is a cheap, recyclable, stiff board which has a good surface to print onto. Used for packaging, boxes and cartons. 125 - 300 gsm
  • Corrugated card Contains two or more layers of card with interlacing fluted inner section. The fluted inner section adds strength to the card without a huge increase within its weight. Used for packing items that need protecting during shipping. 250+ gsm
  • Foil lined Board- is good quality cardboard with a aluminium foil lining. This type of container is ideal for ready made meals or take away meals. The foil retains the heat and helps keep the food warm.
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Commercial Manufacturing finishes

  • Lamination: increases rigidity and moisture protection while applying an aesthetically pleasing gloss to the paper or board
  • Lithography: The most common method of printing, used by high volume commercial printing industries and it can print double sided
  • Colour: RGB and CYMK are different processes. RGB is for digital things while CYMK is for printing
  • Offset Lithography: Transfers the image to be printed onto a series of rollers from a metal plate, a mirror image is transferred to a cylinder which corrects it while printing
  • Embossing & Debossing: Folds the paper and heats it to hold the fibres in place without bending.
  • UV Spot Varnish: Uses a mask to apply a solution that when exposed to UV light, shines the area not protected by a mask
  • Die-Cutting: Sets the blades on a Die cutter to the required shape and cuts out the shape from papers or boards.
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