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    • Hazards and risks
      • a hazard is anything that may cause harm, such as chemicals, electricity, working from ladders, an open drawer etc
        • the risk is the chance, high or low, that somebody could be harmed by these and other hazards, together with an indication of how serious the harm could be
    • Fire Extinguisher
      • A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user, or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire brigade.
        • Different types of fire extinguishers are: Water Foam CO2 Dry powder Vaporising liquids Wet chemical Fire blanket
    • Health and Safety
      • Health and safety at work act 1974 is responsible for enforcing the act of safety at work.
        • Workers have a duty to take care of the health and safety of others who may be affected by your actions at work.
          • Employers duty to protect the health, safety and welfare of their employees and other people who may be affected by the actions or work done.
    • Risk Assessments
      • a risk assessment is a systematic process of evaluating the potential risks that may be involved in a projected activity or undertaking.
        • Risk assessments are very important as they form an integral part of an occupational health and safety management plan. They help to: Create awareness of hazards and risk.
    • Method Statements
      • A method statement is a written document that essentially details a safe system of work and identifies the conceivable hazards that may arise during the work that is undertaken. d
      • The Method statement should explain in detail the work that is to be undertaken and the necessary remedial measures that need to be in place.
    • Work Permits
      • Formal procedures used to control activities that are considered high-risk. Permits only allow authorised personnel to perform those activities at specified times and in a way set out in the permit and referenced documents. 
      • A permit to work might be required for activities such as: Electrical works. Excavation. Lifting operations. Work in confined spaces. 
    • PPE
      • PPE is equipment that will protect the users health and safety risks at work. it can include items such as
        • Safe footwear/ steel-toe capped boots
        • Hard hats/ helmets
        • Gloves/ hand protection
    • Substructure and superstructure
      • A Substructure is an underlying or supporting structure to superstructure. It is below ground level. Foundation is part of substructure
        • Substructure is the lower portion of the building which transmits the dead load, live loads and other loads to the underneath sub soil.
      • A superstructure is an upward extension of an existing structure above a baseline called Ground Level in general and it usually serves the purpose of the structure's intended use.
        • In Buildings, the portion of the structure that is above ground level that receives the live load is referred to as Superstructure.


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