Testing for Metal Ions
Some metal ions can be indentified with the flame test.
A damp splint is placed into the solid and held in the Bunsen burner flame.
The colour of the flame identifies the metal.
Sodium - Yellow
Potassium - Lilac
Calcium - Red
Copper - Blue/Green
Testing for Carbonate Ions
1. Add dilute acid to a substance.
2. Test gas given off with limewater.
- It will fizz or bubble as a gas is given off.
- The gas will turn the limewater milky/cloudy.
Testing for Chloride Ions
1. Add a few drops of dilute nitric acid and shake.
2. Add a few drops of silver nitrate.
- If chloride ions are present then a white precipitate of silver chloride will form.
Testing for Sulphate Ions
1. Add a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid and shake.
2. Add a few drops of barium chloride solution.
- A white precipitate of barium sulphate will form if sulphate ions are present.