What is an interview
Planned interpersonal communication or conversation with a purpose, whereby two people interact largely through questions and answer fomat to achieve specefic goals.
Purpose of an Interview
Discovery, detection, recognition and identification of relevant issues to the patients situation inclusive of objective and subjective data.
Types of Data Collected
Objective data - free of any biased or prejudice caused by personal feelings, it is based on facts rather than thoughts or opinions.
Subjective data - based on some body's opinions or feelings rather than on facts or evidence.
Styles of Interviewing
Planned Exploration- highly structure to elicit certain information, controlled by the health care worker establishes purpose and asks questions. Frequently used to gather and provide information in a limited amount of time.
Spontaneous Exploration- patient controlled and led, use of open questions, time consuming, useful in assisting the patient to express feelings, increase communication and establish rapport.
Types of Interviews in Health Care
Initial Comprehensive - begins with the initial contact between the nurse and the patient, comprehensive assessment consisting of objective and subjective data, overall picture of the patients health status regarding all body systems, functional abilities etc.
Focused- gathers data bout actual,potential or possible problems that have been identified
Ongoing - data gathered after a database of information has been completed, used to identify new problems/issues and elevate current issues.
Phases of an Interview
Preparation - plan for the first meeting.
Initiation - establish therapeutic climate ,claify purpose and establish mutual goals.
Exploration - explore problems, manage feeling, develop coping skills.
Termination - plan for closure summarise issues, express feelings.
Techniques used when Interviewing
Therapeutic- clarifying, paraphrasing, summarising, reflecting, questioning, focusing, stating observations,accepting, empathetic.
Non-Therapeutic- offering false reassurances, changing the subject inappropriately, expressing unnecessary approval disapproval, giving an opinion or advise.
Two Broad Types of Questions
Open and Closed Questions
Open Questions -
- begin with who/what/why/ when/where/ how
- give client freedom to divulge only information he is read to disclose
- question is breoad, specifies only the the topic to be discussed and invites answers longer that one or two words,
- allows clients freedom to talk about what they wish,
- lead or invite client to explore thoughts or feelings.
Closed Questions -
- restircive and generally require yes/no answers,
- provides specific information,
- amount of information gained is generally limited.
Types of Questions
Leading Rhetorical Questions
Multiple Choice Questions
Double Barrelled Questions
Long Winded Build Up Questions
Barriers to Effective Questioning
- Lack of questioning skills
- Documentation worried about paperwork
- Distancing showing no non-verbal communication worried about next question
- Provoking- strong emotions
- Assumptions- pullback and hold onto woenperson opinions.