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Hippocrates

-developed the theory of the four humours which said that the body was made up of: yellow bile, black bile, blood and phlegm

-important because it was a natural theory and promoted others to look for natural theories in a time that the majority were supernatural

-wrote a collection of medical books called the Hippocratic Corpus

-promoted clinical observation and noting of symptoms, which doctors still use today

-about 460-377 (Greek)

-Hippocratic oath

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Galen

-Roman doctor that studied at Alexandria

-encouraged dissection of human bodies and clinical observation

-wrote over 60 books that were used for the next 1500 years

-he wrote of his anatomical theories and knowledge

-he devised the theory of the opposites which described giving a patient the opposite of what had made them unwell

-he discovered that the brain controls the body through nerves not the heart through experiments

-his theories fitted with religious ideas so were accepted by the Church and people were afraid to go against him because this would be going against the church.

-some of his discoveries were incorrect because he dissected animals not humans, for example, he thought that the jawbone was made of two bones

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Pare

-born in France 1510 and was a barbour surgeon in Paris

-became an army surgeon and spent 20 years treating sword/gun shot wounds (experienced)

-wounds used to be treated by pouring hot oil onto them and this was called cauterising

-One day he ran out of oil so used his initiative and applied past knowledge from a Roman tradition and treated the wounds with a mixture of egg yolk, rose oil and turpentine

-the men treated with his mixture were still alive the next day and were healthier than the men who had been treated with hot oil

-he also stopped using a cautery to seal blood vessels by tying the ends of the arteries with ligatures which was far less painful (used before but thought to be too risky)

-this did often carry infection though, which would lead to death

-he became a doctor for the French king 

-In 1575 he wrote "the works of surgery"

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Vesalius

-Born in Brussels 1514 and studied medicine in Paris and Italy

-While studying, he met artists who were already dissecting bodies to make their art more realistic and he used the artists drawings to make a book called 'the fabric of the human body'

-His book was a fantastic resource and improved knowledge of anatomy

-In his book he challenged some of the ideas of Galen. For example, Galen said that blood moved from one side of the heart to the other through holes in the septum and this is not true.

-His book encouraged others to seek alternative theories and paved the way for them to do this

-At his university, he was allowed to think freely and dissect human bodies 

-gained a job working as the doctor of Charles V Spain

-disliked by many doctors for challenging Galen

-the printing press allowed many copies of his book to be printed

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Harvey

-Born 1578 in Cambridge and became a successful doctor and lecturer in London

-was able to carry out dissection at university 

-published his book, "On the movement of the Heart and blood" in 1628

-proved that blood flows around the body and is carried away from the heart by arteries and returned by veins and that the heart acts like a pump and blood is not burned up

-his theories challenged old ideas (Galen)

-he could prove his ideas because he carried out experiments and dissections/vivisections of animals to see the hearts movements

-his methods encouraged other doctors to experiment and doctors used his methods to solve problems and discover other things about physiology

-the only thing he could not prove was the existance of capillaries because he would have needed a better microscope to see them and when they did exist people did see capillaries 

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Jenner

-countryside doctor that started the very first branch of immunology

-suprised when country folk did not want his innoculation. They told him that people who had caught cow pox did not catch small pox

-he made a link and using his initativedecided to test this

-He took cow pox pus from Sarah Nealms and put it into a young boy, James Phipps, with two half inch cuts. The boy was then given the small pox pus and no disease followed

-He repeated the experiment 23 times

-He submitted his work to the Royal Society in 1798 and his ideas were rejected because he couldn't explain them

-He published his results himself (perserverence) and called the technique vaccination

-The government gave him a grant on £30000 and he opened a vaccination clinic in London

-By 1803, the USA were using it and the president promoted it

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Pasteur

-In the 1850s he became interested in microorganisms

-investigated in a brewing factory and discovered that germs were the cause of fermenting alcohol

-In 1860 he entered a competition that asked scientists to prove or disprove an old theory called spontaneous generation and he won with his GERM THEORY.

-he proved germ theory with a series of ingeneous experiments. He was patient and maticulous. One experiment involved filling sterile flasks with air from Parisian streets and watching bacteria grow.

-germ theory was published in 1861

-he was challenged publically to prove his ideas. He was courageous because he did even though he was ridiculed

-He was very courageous and this spurred him on to making more discoveries than bitter German rival Koch

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Koch

-Born in Germany 1845 and rivals with Pasteur

-Became interested in Pasteur's germ theory when it was published in The Time (communication)

-He bought a microscope to study anthrax

-His maticulous research impressed the German government and they gave him a full time job and team of bacteriologists

-Other scientists followed his methods in their own research

-His experiments involed taking the organs from a dead sheep and growing the bacteria that had caused the anthrax and injecting it into a mouse. The mouse developed anthrax. Repeated 20 times (maticulous)

-This method was used for other diseases

-Discovered a way of staining bacteria that other scientists also used

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Fleming

-Born in Scotland 1881 and studied in St Mary's London where he worked with fantasic bacteriologists 

-Very clever and lead an active lifestyle

-Joined Royals Army Medical Corps in 1914 and this experience motivated him in later years to discover a cure against bacterial infections

-In 1928 he was studying colonies of staphylococci and mould would grow around them

-Attached to his work

-By chance he left a window open and a fungal spore entered and landed on the cultures 

-the fungal spore killed all the mould and the bacteria was called penicillin notatum

-He could not successfully purify it

-Wrote paper about it in 1929

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Florey and Chain

-Scientist in Oxford that came across Fleming's paper in 1937 and were interested

-Developed a system of freeze thawing mouldy items (milk bottles, and dairy proudcts) to gather penicillin

-Only gathered a few grams

-Tested it by injecting into 4 mice and injecting the same 4 and 4 more with staphylococci. 4 with penicillin survived

-Oxford policeman 1941

-Could not mass produce in England because of the War (supplies were short and money going towards machines and blitz and bombing destroying factoires) so moved to America (before they had joined the Allies)

-America were easily pursuade when they joined in 1942 and gave $80 million

-

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Florence Nightingale

-Born to a wealthy family in 1820 and thought God wanted her to be a nurse

-She secretly visited hospitals and saw all the nurses were drunk and knew something had to be done

-In 1851 she secretly went to Germany for three months and trained as a nurse and when she got home she opened a hospital for "gentle-women" but it wasn't for her

-Sydney Herbert asked her to help in Crimea in 1854 and she led a group of trained nurses there and the conditions were awful

-She introduced privacy during amputation and promoted cleanliness and a good diet (even paid for a chef to come over)

-In 6 months she had cut deaths rates from 50% to 2% and people in England called her the Lady with the Lamp (she had many supporters in England because of the papers) and raised thousands of pounds for her

-Wrote 800 page report for governement and 3 years later the army hospital DR had halved

-Wrote a book called 'Notes on Nursing' which was very popular

-Didnt want the fame and fortune

-Set up a school for nurses with money raised in Crimea

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Mary Seacole

-Black woman born 1805 in Jamaica

-Mother ran a boarding house for injured troops and she helped out

-In 1854 she went to England and offered to work in Crimea but was rejected. She was so determinded that she made her own way there and funded it herself

-She set up a medical store in Crimea which was full of remedies

-Sold alcohol at the hostel

-Tended to the wounded on battlefields and troops knew her as 'Mother Seacole'. Florence did not go on battlefield

-Florence did not allow her to join her nursing team

-She did not receive a heroine welcome when she returned and had to write a book to raise money

-called "the wonderful life of Mrs Seacole"

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