economic inequalities influence social and environmental issues? - FLASHCARDS NEEDED

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  • Created by: StevenFox
  • Created on: 08-04-16 20:31

Mexico City - NIC

8th richest urban city area

211th most poluted country

Physical:

High altidute basin = Inversion layer

Economic:

  • Rapid industriliasation - 50,000 factories
  • 3.5 million vehicles (many of which are 20+ years old)

Social:

  • Overcrowded - 6.3 people per household
  • More than 20 million people
  • Poor quality housing - 3 million without sewage facilities
  • 2 million without running water 
  • Air quality is equivalent to smoking 60 ciggarrettes a day
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Mexico City - NIC #2

Political:

Lax anti-pollution laws

Waste:

  • Ozone is excessive on 98% of days - Gets trapped in inversion layer
  • Groundwater polluted by industrial waste
  • 14,000 tonnes of garbage produced everday
  • Only 25% of solid waste is placed in landfill - most is left to rot
  • Huge noise pollution trapped by buildings
  • 41% of trips done by car
  • 46% of trips in low quality buses
  • 75% of air pollution from internal combustion engines 
  • 4 million tonnes of pollutants each year
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London - MEDC

102nd out of 215 most polluted

Physical:

  • Basin
  • Prevaling winds move winds eastward towards Scandinavia

Economic:

  • Decline of heavy industry
  • Decline of port
  • Heavy traffic - especially M25
  • Two Airports - Heathrow & Luton

Social:

  • Density is falling
  • Housing quality rising - no longer use coal
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London - MEDC

Political:

  • Pollution laws - Clean Air Act
  • Controls on lorry emissions with fines
  • Congestion charge - led to 20% fall in emissions
  • Recycling policy - 20% in reclycling usage
  • Laws against excessive noise

Waste:

  • Nitrious oxide levels exceed EU limit for 0.3 million of the population
  • Pollution trapped in 'urban canyon'
  • Vastly reduced water pollution due to new sewage plants
  • Salmon have returned to the Thames
  • 70% of waste goes to landfill but most is exported from the city
  • Recycling is increasing
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Cape Town - Social & Economic inequalities

Huge disparities between the predominant ethnic groups - Whites, Blacks, and 'Coloureds'

Social Inequalities:

  • Cape Flats was an aparthied 'dumping ground' for non-white groups
  • After aparthied, due to rural-urban migration, many non-whites still settled here to find work
  • Number of shacks rose from 28,000 in 1993 to 265,000 in 2005
  • Housing quality is extremly poor - susceptable to extreme winter conditions due to lack of amenities
  • AIDS epidemic is at its worst in the poor townships of Nyanga & Khayelitsha townships - 1 in 4 people suffer from AIDS

Cross Roads v Constantia:

  • 80% of households live below the poverty line, with 40% of there pitiful allowance spent on food
  • Less than 50% of houses in Cross Roads have access to water
  • Region has recorded 266 murders & 196 rapes between 2007 & 2008
  • Contanatia is one of the most wealthiest suburbs
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Cape Town - Social & Economic inequalities #2

  • 87% of Constanatia population is white and less than 10% live below the poverty line
  • One of the safest suburbs - gated community, schools, armed guard, barbed wires

Economic inequalities:

  • Whites make up 19% of population yet hold 58% of the wealth
  • Blacks make up 32% of the population and hold 9% of the wealth
  • Loss of aparthied ironically increased poverty due to lack of work
  • 32% of Cape Town households live below the poverty line
  • 44% of working age Blacks are unemployed, 5% for whites, 25% for 'coloureds'
  • 1/5th of Cape Town work is informal, those whom are uneligable for the formal sector
  • Those who can find work in the formal sector are often badly paid & can barely afford bus travel
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To what extent can social and economic inequalitie

UK:

  • Inner city v periphery inequalites
  • Decline of old heavy industry

Limit:

Set higher tax rates in wealthy/growing areas

Encourage:

Set up activities with huge multiplier effects - ports, tourism etc

Tax Insentives:

  • Tax breaks for those in declining areas
  • Rate relief for poorer local authorities

Relocations:

  • Tax offices to north-east, DVLA to cardiff
  • Military bases moved north
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To what extent can social and economic inequalitie

Development projects:

  • New power stations - Severn Barrage
  • Tourist developments - Eden project in Cornwall

Urban redevelopments:

  • Urban redevelopment schemes - Manchester
  • New deals for communities
  • Gardan festivals
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