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Behaviour which breaks laws and is punished by
Crime the legal system





Behaviour which goes against the norms, values
Deviance and expectations of a social group or society





Defined deviance: `Deviance may be considered
Downes and Rock as banned or controlled behaviour which is likely
to attract punishment or disproval'…

Page 2

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Positive (conforming to the norm)
Pat on the back
`Well done' ­ good behaviour

Informal sanctions (carried out by the public) Negative (punishment from deviating from the
norm)
Deliberately ignoring someone
Telling off for bad behaviour




19th century had the first theories as to why crime Non sociological theories the…

Page 3

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Deviancy allows for social change to occur
It moves from functional to dysfunctional
Durkheim Too high = threatens social order
Too low =no social change


Identified 2 ways that deviance maintained social
order.
Prostitution provides a safety value for
releasing tension without threatening
Cohen social stability
Deviant behaviour is used…

Page 4

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Criticises Miller and said that the WC live their
Bordua lives isolated from the rest of society is flawed to
begin with




New Right
Believes there is an underclass in both British
Murray and American societies, with a distinct culture
and value system which encourages deviant
behaviour.


Traditional ones say…

Page 5

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Women have fewer opportunities to commit crime
Heidensohn in a patriarchal society. The crimes women do
tend to commit are related to their role in the
home.



Female identities are changing and women are
Westwood adopting more typically male behaviour patterns.
Could link to the rise in female crime




Suggests…

Page 6

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Primary deviance Secondary deviance
The initial deviant act Deviant acts committed after the individual has
accepted the label of deviant.



Distinguished between primary and
secondary deviance.
Primary deviance is of little significance until
Lemert the person is labelled from societal reaction
and therefore commit more crime

Some people commit suicide…

Page 7

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Agree that social control is essential to keep
order. Capitalism is an exploitative system that
Marxists requires systems of social control over the
population to prevent rebellion and revolution.
Social control benefits the ruling class

Social control is maintained through
hegemony

The ability to informally control ideas and
Marxists
values…

Page 8

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If you end capitalism, crime would end, is their
view. There is crime in socialist societies such as
Traditional Marxists Cuba and some capitalist societies such as
Switzerland have very low crime rates


Said that left wing sociological debate and social
policy on crime must start accepting that:
Crimes other…

Page 9

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Supports the broken window thesis, as the
damage to a neighbourhood should be corrected
immediately or problems of crime will get out of
Wilson and Kelling hand.
(Right realists) He further imposes the idea to remove resources
and police away from the area, once social order
has gone it's almost…

Page 10

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Not all crime is reported to the police
If they don't have faith in the police, they don't
report crime
Police crime figures don't reflect to the full extent Much sexual crime is not reported due to the
of crime in Britain
sensitivity and embarrassment of the issue
People view…

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