'Flashcards' for Sociology, Crime and Deviance

Just thought I would give something back to this community.

Enjoy!

Also Merton is missing from these flashcards because I added it later

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  • Created by: Tam-May
  • Created on: 18-06-12 15:21
Preview of 'Flashcards' for Sociology, Crime and Deviance

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Behaviour which breaks laws and is punished by
Crime the legal system
Behaviour which goes against the norms, values
Deviance and expectations of a social group or society
Defined deviance: `Deviance may be considered
Downes and Rock as banned or controlled behaviour which is likely
to attract punishment or disproval'
Wrote about how definitions of criminal deviance,
sexual deviance and madness have changed
throughout history i.e. women wearing trousers
Foucault was seen as deviant, now it is `normal'
(supports: Kuhn: paradigms)
An act can be seen as deviant or non deviant
depending on the situation
Societal deviance (that are seen by most
as deviant in society in most situations)
Plummer such as child abuse
Situational deviance (acts that can be
defined as deviant or normal) such as
killing someone, its okay if it is a soldier
but deviant otherwise.
Social order and social control maintain the Some norms become second nature to people
status quo within society and creates a value such as face to face conversations. However
consensus of how to behave. Therefore people are there are norms that we are conscious of, such
socialised to follow social norms. as stopping at a red traffic light.
Positive (conforming to the norm)
Certificate for passing A level exam
Medal for bravery
Formal sanctions (carried out by official agencies)
Negative (punishment from deviating from the
norm)
Fine for breaking the law
Points on a drivers licence

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Positive (conforming to the norm)
Pat on the back
`Well done' ­ good behaviour
Informal sanctions (carried out by the public) Negative (punishment from deviating from the
norm)
Deliberately ignoring someone
Telling off for bad behaviour
19th century had the first theories as to why crime Non sociological theories the cause of crime lies
was occurring and were based on psychological with the individual whereas sociology, the cause
or physiological characteristics of an individual of crime lies with society
deviant.…read more

Page 3

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Deviancy allows for social change to occur
It moves from functional to dysfunctional
Durkheim Too high = threatens social order
Too low =no social change
Identified 2 ways that deviance maintained social
order.…read more

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Criticises Miller and said that the WC live their
Bordua lives isolated from the rest of society is flawed to
begin with
New Right
Believes there is an underclass in both British
Murray and American societies, with a distinct culture
and value system which encourages deviant
behaviour.
Traditional ones say that the rich and
powerful decide what is considered deviant
Marxists and criminal to suit their own interests.…read more

Page 5

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Women have fewer opportunities to commit crime
Heidensohn in a patriarchal society. The crimes women do
tend to commit are related to their role in the
home.
Female identities are changing and women are
Westwood adopting more typically male behaviour patterns.
Could link to the rise in female crime
Suggests that female crime has to be looked at
Smart as part of a women's broader experience in
society. I.e. women are often invisible victims of
domestic violence.…read more

Page 6

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Primary deviance Secondary deviance
The initial deviant act Deviant acts committed after the individual has
accepted the label of deviant.
Distinguished between primary and
secondary deviance.
Primary deviance is of little significance until
Lemert the person is labelled from societal reaction
and therefore commit more crime
Some people commit suicide once their deviance
has been discovered
Criticises Becker and Lemert, for presenting
Akers individuals as powerless.
Deviance is not something which happens but a
choice that individual makes.…read more

Page 7

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Agree that social control is essential to keep
order. Capitalism is an exploitative system that
Marxists requires systems of social control over the
population to prevent rebellion and revolution.…read more

Page 8

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If you end capitalism, crime would end, is their
view.…read more

Page 9

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Supports the broken window thesis, as the
damage to a neighbourhood should be corrected
immediately or problems of crime will get out of
Wilson and Kelling hand.
(Right realists) He further imposes the idea to remove resources
and police away from the area, once social order
has gone it's almost impossible to regain it so it's
not worth wasting resources.
Claim a biological predisposition to crime in some
individuals but with the right socialisation, they
Wilson and Herrnstien can be trained away from it.…read more

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Not all crime is reported to the police
If they don't have faith in the police, they don't
report crime
Police crime figures don't reflect to the full extent Much sexual crime is not reported due to the
of crime in Britain
sensitivity and embarrassment of the issue
People view some crime as trivial and
therefore think the police would think the
same
Police don't report all crime that's given to them.
It's up to them if an incident is worth reporting.…read more

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