Effects of ICT
Many workers have lost their jobs where they can be replaced by a computer or a machine becuase machines have low running costs (compared with wages) so goods cost less to make. Machines can run constatnly without breaks. They work quickly and accurately.
In offices, filing clerks have lost their jobs because documents created on word processor are stored directly on hard disks
In banks thousands of staff were employed to issue cash to customers. Their jobs have been replaced with ATMs.
New jobs have been created too. Many new factories have been built to manufacture hardware; many new computer shops have been created and software/training companies have been established.
Staff need good computing skills in word processing, spreadsheets and databases. They need to email documents, mailmerge letters, edit web pages, purchase online etc.
Overall, computers have increased productivity at work=higher standard of living. People have more money and time for leisure activities. Therefore, there have been more jobs available in the service industry (catering, hoterls, travel, sport)
Social Interaction and Enviroment
- More people are working from home as they can communicate via email, telephone and Internet, even video conference
- Online Shopping means you can get clothes/household goods delivered to your door.
- Goods can be paid for by credit card, bank accounts can be viewed and payments made by home banking over the Internet.
Overall, these developments means less social interaction.
Computers generate a lot of paper. Many trees have been cut down/power used to make paper. Many companies generate junk mail, wasting paper, with the help of mail merge. Also computers/machines are often left on unecessarily,wasting energy.
But, using ICT to control heating systems and manufcturing processes can save resourses. Also as may people work from home, due to ICT, less fuel is being used and less car pollution emitted.
Communications and Business
- Mobile phones are widespread. People can be contacted instantly.
- Text messaging language has evolved.
- Internet offers instant communication such as messaging software (MSN) and chat rooms.
- Email messgaes/attachements are used in businesses instead of written documents sent via post, taking days for documents to pass between companies.
- Social Networking websites (FaceBook) allow peolple to keep in touc
- The internet is used for advertising and selling products. The internet provides the same oppurtunties to the one man sole trader and a large corporation, the cost of hosting a Web site is the same and the entire world are potential customers. Some sites even offer a choice of language.
Education, Health, Crime, People
Both pupils and teachers use computers e.g. interactive whiteboards, digital projectors, resources on the Internet, multimedia presentation software
Health (in society)
Machines can perform tasks that are dangerous for people to do e.g. lifting heavy loads, spray painting cars, working in radioactive areas, deep sea exploration. Computers can also cause RSI, back problems, eye strain.
There is less cash about to be stolen as companies can transfer wages electronically to their bank accounts. However, plastic card fraud is on the increase. Criminals can lose, steal or copy (counterfeit) cards.
Privacy: Many orgainsations hold data about individuals e.g. insurance companies, income tax office, banks, supermarkets (through loyalty cards). There usually alot og personal data. The Data Protection Act is set up to protect the rights of people as networks such as the Internet means data can be transmitted around the world in minutes.
Principles: Personal data must:
1. be processed fairly and lawfully,
2.Be obtained for specified purposes
3. Be relevant and not excessive for the purpose
4. Be accurate and up-to date
5. Not kept longer than necessary
6.Be processed withing the rights of data subjects (see next card)
7. Be kept secure against damage/loss/unauthorised processing
8. not be transferred outsied the European Economic area unless adequate protection for rights of data subjects ensured.
Personal data- data that can indentify a person/allow an opinion to be expressed.e.g. date of birth and earnings. NB. name and address is not considered personal data
Sensitive Personal Data - racial origins, religion, physical/mental health conditions, politicial opinions, sexual life, wether they are a member of any trade unions
Rights of Data Subject and Exemptions
Rights of the data subject. The induvidual can:
-be given a copy of the data held
-prevent processing of the data if it is likely to cause distress or damage
-have data corrected, blocked, erased (if inaccurate)
-recieve compensation for damage/distress caused by use of data.
-make a request to the Information Commissionif they feel the Act has been contravened.
-held for domestic purposes e.g. an address book/telephone book
-involved in health, education and social work e.g. you can't demand your teacher to 'correct' your grade(!)/or if a doctor feels it is in the patient's best interest not to tell.
-associated with crime or taxation\\
-related to national security
The Computer Misuse Act, The Copy Right Designs An
The Computer Misuse Act covers:
- Hacking- unauthorised access to any programme held in a computer
- Copmuter Fraud/Blackmail
- Viruses: Unauthorised modification of the contents of a computer or intentionally sending a virus to damage/destroy software/files. NB. creating a virus is not illegal in itself nor is sending one unintentionally.
The Copy Right Designs And Patents Act covers:
stealing software, using illegaly copied software, running purchased software on 2 or more computers at one time without a suitable licence. (Orgainsations can purchase software licences to cover the number of work stations on their network)
There are 2 Uk based organisations that have formed to stop the illegal use of software:
1. FAST (Federation Against Software Theft)- promotes legal use of software
2. BSA (Business Sotware Alliance) - makes companies aware of the law and encourages its implementation
- Electronic cables should not trail across the floor, so people do not trip over
- Food and drinks kept away from the hardware, so it does not spill and damage it
- Computers should be positioned so that sunlight from the window does not reflect of the screen
- Adjustable chairs that support the back and the height can be changed should be provided to prevent back pains.
- Regular breaks from constantly working on the computer or it can lead to eye strain and headaches
- If the employee spends a lot of time at thier workstation, on a computer, employer must pay for eye tests.
- Or they could get RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury). Therefore wrist supports should be used
On the Internet- Internet Service Providers such as Research Machines, filter sites to stop young children viewing inappropriate material. At home, filtering softare can be purchased.