Human Geography GCSE Keyterms

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  • Created by: Bella B
  • Created on: 10-01-16 18:15

Ageing Population Structure

A population pyramid with a narrower shape, broad at the top, found in MEDCs.

This reflects their low birth rates and the greater proportion of elderly people!

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Age-Sex Pyramid (Population Pyramid)

A series of horizontal bars that illustrate the structure of a population.

The horizontal bars represent different age categories, which are placed on either side of a central vertical axis.

Males are to the left of the axis, females to the right.

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Ageing Population

In the population structure of many MEDCs there is often a high proportion of elderly people who have survived due to advances in nutrition and medical care.

This creates problems since these people do not work and have to be provided with pensions, medical care, social support, sheltered housing etc. from the taxes paid by a proportionally smaller number of workers.

In addition, an increasing number of young people are employed as care workers for the elderly.

This removes them from more productive jobs within the economy and harms a country's competitiveness.

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Birth Rate

The number of live births per 1000 people per year.

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Bulge of Young Male Migrants

On a population pyramid; young males move to urban areas due to push-pull factors.

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Census

A counting of people by the government every ten years to gather data for planning of schools, hospitals, etc.

This is unreliable for a number of reasons.

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Child Dependency ratio

The number of children in relation to the number of working (economically active) population, usually expressed as a ratio.

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Concentrated Population Distribution

Where people are grouped densely in an urbanised area (see Port, Bridging-Point, Route Centre, Wet Point Site, Market Town, Mining Town, Resort).

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Contraception

Using birth control to stop pregnancy.

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Counter-urbanisation

Movement of people in MEDCs away from urban areas to live in smaller towns and villages (see de-urbanisation and urban-rural shift).

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Death rate

The number of deaths per 1000 people per year.

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Demographic transition

The change from high birth rates and death rates to low birth rates and death rates.

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Demographic Transition Model

Diagram which shows the relationship between birth and death rates and how changes in these affect the total population.

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Dependency Ratio

The ratio between those of working age and those of non-working age. This is calculated as:

% pop aged 0 -14 + % pop aged 65+
% of population aged 15-65 x 100

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Dependent Population

Those who rely on the working population for support e.g. the young and elderly.

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Depopulation

 The decline or reduction of population in an area.

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De-urbanisation

The process in MEDCs by which an increasingly smaller percentage of a country’s population lives in towns and cities, brought about by urban-rural migration. (See Counter-Urbanisation and Urban-Rural Shift).

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Youthful Population Structure

Seen as a wide base on population pyramids that reflect high birth rates in LEDCs.

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Youthful Population

In the population structure of LEDCs, there is often a higher proportion of young people due to high birth rates and a reduction in infant mortality due to better nutrition, education and medical care.

This may create problems since the children need feeding, housing, education and eventually a job.

Medical care and education has to be paid for by taxing a proportionally small number of workers.

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Working Population

People in employment who have to support the dependent population.

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Voluntary Migration

Where people move to another area through choice.

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Urban Population Structure

Young males move to urban areas due to push-pull factors. This creates a characteristic population pyramid bulge in the 20-35 age range.

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Urbanisation

The growth of towns and cities leading to an increasing proportion of a country’s population living there. It as a gradual process common in LEDCs where 1 million people move from the countryside to the cities every three days.

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Urban-Rural Shift

The movement of people out of towns in MEDCs to seek a better quality of life living in the countryside. Some work from home using telecommunications technology; most travel into the city each day as commuters, contributing to the rush hour.

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Structure (of a population)

The relative percentages of people of different age groups, usually shown on a population pyramid.

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Distribution (of a population)

Where people are found and where they are not found.

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Economic Migrant

Person leaving her/his native country to seek better economic opportunities (jobs) and so settle temporarily in another country.

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Economic Migrant

Person leaving her/his native country to seek better economic opportunities (jobs) and so settle temporarily in another country.

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Emigrant

Someone who leaves an area to live elsewhere.

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Ethnic Group

The group of people a person belongs to categorised by race, nationality, language, religion or culture.

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Family Planning

Using contraception to control the size of your family.

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Family Ties

The lack of family ties (no wife or children) encourages young males to migrate from LEDCs to MEDCs or from rural to urban areas to seek a better life. The young (20-35) are also best-suited physically to heavy unskilled/semi-skilled work. See Guest-Worker.

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Fertile Age Group

The child-bearing years of women, normally 18-45 years of age.

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Gross National Product (GNP) per capita

The total value of goods produced and services provided by a country in a year, divided by the total number of people living in that country.

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Human Development Index

A social welfare index, adopted by the United Nations as a measure of development, based upon life expectancy (health), adult literacy (education), and real GNP per capita (economic).

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Guest-Worker Migration

People leaving their country to work in another land but not to settle: the term is associated with unskilled/semi -skilled labour.

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Immigrant

Someone who moves into an area from elsewhere.

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Quality of Life Index

A single number or score used to place different countries in rank order based on their quality of life. Various indicators are included, e.g. GNP per person, calorie intake, life expectancy, access to health care, number of doctors per 100,000 etc.

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Refugees

People forced to move from where they live to another area.

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Migration

Movement of people.

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Migrant

Someone who moves from one place to another to live.

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Literacy Rate

The proportion of the total population able to read and write.

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Infant Mortality

The number of babies dying before their first birthday per 1000 live births.

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Life Expectancy

The average number of years a person born in a particular country might be expected to live.

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Natural Population Change

The difference in number between those who are born and those who die in a year. Additional effects of migration are not included.

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Natural Increase or Decrease

The difference between the birth rate and the death rate. Additional effects of migration are not included.

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Push-Pull Factors

Push factors encourage or force people to leave a particular place; pull factors are the economic and social attractions (real and imagined) offered by the location to which people move (i.e. the things which attract someone to migrate to a place).

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