How Plants Produce Food

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Carbon Dioxide + Water = (Light Energy & Cholrophyll) = Glucose + Oxygen

  • Found in air
  • Found in soil
  • Found in phloem, used for respiration & proteins
  • Used for respiration, waste product


  • Have a large surface area to maximise sunlight absorption
  • Arranges so they dont cover any other leaf
  • Perpendicular to the light
  • HIgh up in the tree
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Limiting Factors for Photosynthesis

  • Photosynthesis can be limited by Carbon Dioxide, Light Intensity & Temperature (Up to 25 degrees)
  • If there is more light, more can be absorbed by the plant for photosynthesis, until the rate levels off as it is restricted by another factor (eg. amount of carbon dioxide)
  • If there is more carbon dioxide, the rate increases for the same reason^, until a point where it is restricted by another factor (eg. light intensity)
  • By increasing the temperature, the rate will increase until 25 degrees, where the enzymes are denatured (can't function) at a higher temperature
  • More light is why plants grow better in the summer
  • Light, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll must be present for photosynthesis
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Glucose & Starch

Glucose is used:

  • For respiration
  • To convert insoluble starch for storage
  • To produce fats or oils
  • To produce fats/ proteins/ cellulose for cell walls
  • Combined with nitrates from soil to make amino acids


  • Starch is stored in the seeds and roots as they cannot photosynthesize or get enough glucose
  • Seeds store fats and oils as they cannot produce starch
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Minerals & Deficiencies


  • Without nitrogen, plants cannot make proteins, so cannot grow new cells
  • Nitrogen is used to turn amino acids into proteins
  • Proteins are made up of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen


  • Plants cannot make chlorophyll without magnesium
  • Chlorophyll contains magnesium, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
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How Plants get Minerals

  • Dead leaves contain nutrients
  • The leaves decay and the nutrients are absorbed by the soil
  • The roots (root hair cells) absorb the nutrients
  • In fields, some farmers have to add fertiliser to the soil as the plants rarely decya as the farmers have taken them away
  • In some places, microbes (to decay the plant) cannot survive as it is too acidic, so minerals cannot be recycled
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