• Created by: simrik
  • Created on: 06-05-22 20:11

How kidneys affect urine volume..

Kidneys remove waste material from body and carry out osmoregulation

  • blood passes through RENAL ARTERY into kidney
  • liquid and dissolved substances are filtered out by CORTEX
  • water and other substances are reabsorbed by the MEDULLA
  • remaining water and dissolved substances pass to URINE to be collected in the RENAL PELVIS
  • urine passes into URETER
  • urine  stored in BLADDER
  • urine leaves through URETHRA
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Anti Diuretic Hormone

ADH is the hormone released by the brain which controls the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys 

  • when water levels are LOWER than normal then ADH is produced 
  • the ADH causes the MEDULLA to reabsorb MORE water from the urine, back into the blood
  • PRODUCES A LOWER VOLUME OF MORE CONCENTRATED URINE, which returns water levels to normal
  • when brain detects HIGHER than normal then opposite happens
  • LESS OR NO ADH is produced, medulla absorbs less water from urine to blood which PRODUCES A LARGER VOLUME OF LESS CONCENTRATED URINE
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Insulin is a hormone that LOWERS blood glucose concentration. Special cells in PANCREAS releases it in response to high glucose.

  • the target for insulin is the LIVER
  • it creates an INCREASED absorption of the glucose from the blood
  • it converts the EXCESS glucose into GLYCOGEN 
  • this glycogen is MAINLY STORED in the liver and partially in muscle cells
  • there is INCREASED respiration
  • NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: a mechanism to ensure the concentration or level of something doesn't deviate too far from the normal value.. INCREASING THE HORMONE HAS THE OPPOSITE (NEGATIVE) EFFECT ON WHAT IS BEING MONITORED
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