History OCR AS - English Civil War + Interregnum Facts (Part 1)

Cards with facts on the English Civil War. This first set covers the events before the Civil War, including Personal Rule, Laudianism, Wentworth in Ireland and the Bishops' Wars.

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Charles' Personality - Positives

  • He was a man of honour. Believed that one should stick to some principles whatever the political repercussions. Once he had placed his trust + loyalty in someone / something it was complete and enduring. When he gave up Wentworth to be executed in 1641 Charles never forgave himself. Very loyal to his wife, Henrietta Maria.
  • Introduced a new sense of propriety and decorum to the court, in contrast to the decadence of his father's establishment. If court was ordered and well governed then kingdom might be too.
  • Cultured - commissioned paintings. Loved music, plays + architecture. Reflected his natural authoritarianism and love of order.
  • Worked hard at fulfilling the role expected of him. Regularly attended meetings of the Privy Council and took an active part in the proceedings.
  • Chose effective royal servants - better men to serve in the highest offices of state.
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Charles' Personality - Negatives

  • Shy and did not communicate well. Man of few words, preferring to listen. Often failed to articulate his ideas so people interpreted his actions in whichever way they saw fit.
  • Uncompromising and inflexible. Belief in the divine right of kings. Example - attachment to Buckingham. Not keen on compromise - saw it as a weakness. Could become vindictive.
  • Obsessed with order and ritual. Approaching the king became formal and controlled. Accessibility of James' reign was gone. Charles reduced the number of occasions that he would touch for the 'King's evil'. Did not undertake 'progresses' into the countryside.
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Was the Outbreak of War Charles' Fault?

Charles' Fault

These historians blame Charles for the Civil War, especially because his propensity for deceit did not inspire trust. Roots of Civil War. 'Woefully inadequate', 'unfit to be king'.

Not Charles' Fault

Argue it was the system of government that was at fault rather than Charles I himself - he ruled Britain despite there being no British machinery of government.

A Middle Road

John Morrill suggested middle road - Charles 'is a necessary, although not sufficient, cause of the civil war.' Although Charles had an impact on the outbreak of Civil war, he was not the only factor that caused the war.

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What Caused the Problems Between Crown and Parliam

  • The Divine Right of Kings
  • Royal Finance
  • Royal Prerogative
  • Parliament's Privileges
  • Impeachment
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The Divine Right of Kings

Charles:

  • Believed strongly in the Divine Right of Kings - a King was God's regent on Earth, answerable only to divine judgement after death (not bound by Earthly law).

Parliament:

  • Believed the King had to act within the law.
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Royal Finance

Charles:

  • Believed he had the right to raise money without Parliament's consent if he thought it necessary.

Parliament:

  • Parliament expected the King to pay for the costs of his household, court and government from the Crown's private income - 'ordinary revenue'. The growing costs of government and inflation made this much more difficult without Parliament voting for subsidies - 'extraordinary revenue'.
    • So the King asked Parliament more frequently for money.
    • They expected him to explain why he needed more money.
    • They withheld money until he addressed their grievances.
    • These grievances were encroaching on issues that the King thought were part of his royal prerogative, e.g. foreign policy and religion.
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Royal Prerogative

Charles:

  • Believed that the King had the power to make decisions that were beyond the competence of Parliament:
    • Foreign policy - to make and break alliances, arrange royal marriages, take England to war.
    • The army was the King's army and took its orders only from him.
    • Parliament was called and dissolved at the King's pleasure. The King could 'prorogue' parliament - interrupting its sitting for as long as he liked.
    • The King appointed all judges and ministers. They did not have to come from Parliament and members of the Privy Council were not answerable to Parliament.

Parliament: Parliament had the freedom of speech (Parliamentary privilege).

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Parliament's Privileges

Charles:

  • The Crown reserved the right to make policy. This caused the problem that no clear distinction could be made between the King's prerogative and Parliament's legitimate interest (what does the King control and what does Parliament control?)

Parliament:

  • By James I's reign in 1603 parliament a strong idea of their privileges.
    • The King had no right to enter the chamber of the House of Commons.
    • Members of Parliament enjoyed freedom from arrest during the existence of the Parliament, after which they might be called to account for what they had said or done. There were some grey areas - e.g. MPs accused of treason.
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Impeachment

Charles:

  • The King said his choice of ministers was a matter of royal prerogative.

Parliament:

  • By the early 1620s parliament was reviving the medieval process of impeachment - turning itself into a court of law. The House of Commons impeached someone, the he would stand trial before the House of Lords (person would be judged + could be imprisoned). It was obvious that Parliament would use impeachment to bring the King's ministers to account.
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Why were the English Quarrelling About Religion?

  • Protestants and Catholics had been fighting each other in Europe for the last 100 years.
  • The Church of England dated from the reign of Elizabeth I. Her 'Elizabethan Settlement' tried to create a national church in which everybody could worship - all except the most extreme Catholics and Protestants.
  • In this they were isolated, and Elizabeth hoped that this would diffuse threatening religious tensions.
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What Was the Elizabethan Settlement? (1)

Church of England Est. 1559. Founded by Acts of Parliament:

  • 1) Act of Supremacy - the monarch is 'Supreme Governor' of the Church.
  • 2) Act of Uniformity - Church services to conform to the Book of Common Prayer.
  • 3) Thirty-Nine articles - define the official beliefs (doctrine) of the Church of England.
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What Was the Elizabethan Settlement? (2)

To please Catholics:

  • Monarch is 'Governor' not 'Head' (so not offending the pope).
  • Bishops govern the Church (keeps general Church hierarchy).
  • Ministers wear vestments.
  • Holy Communion open to a Catholic interpretation.
  • Ceremony encouraged (e.g. rituals).
  • Iconoclasm discouraged.
  • Sign of the Cross and bowing at the name of Jesus.
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What Was the Elizabethan Settlement? (3)

To please Protestants:

  • The monarch rules the Church (not the pope).
  • English Bible.
  • Services in English.
  • Holy Scripture is all that is needed for salvation.
  • 'Justification by faith' - You could get into heaven by faith alone - didn't need to be a priest or do good deeds to bribe way in, just dedicate life and pray.
  • Ministers can marry.
  • Sermons delivered from a pulpit (raised platform).
  • Communion tables instead of altars.
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Religious Tension in Early 1600s

  • England was now a Protestant country, but some Catholics still hoped to convert England to Catholicism.
  • By the time that Charles I's father James came to the throne in 1603 this caused pressure from Puritans to enforce the anti-Catholic penal laws more strictly.
  • The penal laws were a series of laws that imposed penalties on those who refused to attend Church of England services.
  • Both Elizabeth + James thought differently to Puritans - they believed that the greater threat to stability came from the Puritans themselves, who with their pressure threatened to push loyal Catholics into extremism (punishing Catholics would only make them worse).
  • The Puritans saw all Catholics as potential traitors whose loyalty was suspect (loyal to Pope not Crown). They, therefore, saw no problem in persecution - they thought the Crown should act more aggressively.
  • The Catholics themselves were divided between loyal subjects of the crown + extremists. The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 seemed only to confirm the Puritans' view. They thought that Catholics would stop at nothing to destroy England and the Protestant faith.
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Why were the Protestants Scared?

  • Spanish Inquisition tortured suspected Protestants for heresy.
  • Spanish Duke massacred Dutch (Protestant) civilians in the 1560s.
  • St. Bartholomew's Massacre, Paris, 1573. 5000 Protestants killed.
  • Spanish Armada, 1588. Spain tried to conquer England for Catholicism.
  • Bloody Mary burned nearly 300 Protestants, 1550s.
  • Catholic plots aimed at killing Elizabeth I, replacing with Catholic monarch.
  • Catholic Church threatened to recover all monastic land sold by Henry VIII, now owned by gentry.
  • Gunpowder Plot, 1605. Plot to blow up King + Parliament.
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Timeline of Events During Personal Rule, 1629-40 (

1628:

  • August - Buckingham assassinated.
  • December - Appointment of Wentworth as president of the Council of the North.
  • Charles decides to rule without Parliament.

1629:

  • 2 March - Speaker of the Commons prevented from dissolving Parliament until 3 resolutions are passed, condemning as traitors:
    • Those who have promoted popery and Arminianism.
    • Those who have advised the King to levy extra-parliamentary taxes.
    • Merchants who have voluntarily paid customs duties.
  • April - War between France and England ended (Treaty of Susa).

1630:

  • August - Exchequer judges support king's rights to levy knighthood fines.
  • November - Peace is made between England + Spain (Treaty of Madrid).
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Timeline of Events During Personal Rule, 1629-40 (

1631:

  • January - Book of Orders issued.

1632:

  • January - Wentworth appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland.

1633:

  • Laud is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • June - Charles crowned in Scotland and announces that a new prayer book is to be introduced there.

1634:

  • October - Ship-money writs sent to maritime counties.
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Timeline of Events During Personal Rule, 1629-40 (

1635:

  • June - Ship money is extended to inland counties.
  • Medieval forest courts are revived.

1636:

  • March - William Juxon, Bishop of London, appointed Lord Treasurer.

1637:

  • John Hampden refuses to pay ship money.
  • Prynne, Burton and Bastwicke are mutilated for 'seditious libel'.
  • July - Riots in St. Giles Church, Edinburgh, against the prayer book.
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Timeline of Events During Personal Rule, 1629-40 (

1638:

  • February - Scottish National Assembly issues a National Covenant abolishing the new prayer book.
  • November - Scottish National Assembly abolished bishops, sparking war with England (First Bishops' War).

1639:

  • June - First Bishops' War ends with Truce of Berwick.
  • September - Wentworth returns from Ireland and advises recall of Parliament.
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Timeline of Events During Personal Rule, 1629-40 (

1640:

  • January - Wentworth created Earl of Strafford.
  • April - Short Parliament meets for a few weeks.
  • August - Second Bishops' War begins and Scots take Newcastle.
  • October - Second Bishops' War ends (Treaty of Ripon).
  • November - First meeting of the Long Parliament.
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What was Personal Rule?

  • The period from 1629-40 when the King ruled without calling Parliament.
  • It has also been called the 'Eleven Years' Tyranny'.
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Why did Personal Rule Begin?

  • English foreign policy had been a disaster in the 1620s and the Duke of Buckingham (Charles' friend) was blamed for it.
  • Parliament demanded Buckingham's impeachment, but Charles dissolved Parliament to prevent this (closed down Parliament so Buckingham couldn't be put on trial).
  • As Parliament became more reluctant to grant taxes Charles resorted to 'prerogative taxation', e.g. a Forced Loan from the gentry - basically a tax as if it was not paid, people were imprisoned.
  • Charles' belief in the Divine Right of Kings prevented him from negotiating or cooperating with Parliament.
  • Charles had also promoted some Arminian bishops. These were Anglicans who were closer to Catholics in terms of their beliefs on ritual, doctrine and hierarchy. This obviously worried some other Protestants, especially Puritans.
  • Both sides accused each other of 'innovations' - changes in approach, finance and religion.
  • The Parliament dissolved in 1629 ended with the Speaker being held down in his chair to prevent the dissolution of Parliament, with Black Rod hammering on the door to carry out the King's wishes.
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Innovations

Parliament's innovations:

  • Impeachment
  • Tried to increase powers / privileges
  • Said they had the right to debate things such as foreign policy.

King's innovations

  • Personal rule
  • Promoted Arminian bishops
  • 'Prerogative' taxation
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Governmental Structure

  • Making Laws (Legislature): Parliament (gone when Charles decided to rule without Parliament - he would have to find ways of bending the existing laws to suit their purposes).
  • Enforcing Laws (Executive): The Crown.
  • Interpreting Laws (Judiciary): The Judges.
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Enforcing Laws (Executive) (1)

Privy Council:

  • The King's advisers
  • Administration of central and local government
  • Acted as a court when the King's direct judgement was needed

Local Government (by County):

  • Lord Lieutenants
  • Deputy Lieutenants
  • Sheriffs
  • Justices of the Peace (JPs)
  • Constables

Royal Household:

  • Served the King's domestic needs.
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Enforcing Laws (Executive) (2)

The Bishops:

  • 26 bishops for England and Wales
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Interpreting Laws (Judiciary)

Prerogative Courts:

  • Court of Star Chamber
  • Court of High Commission

Regional Councils:

  • Council of the North
  • Council of the Welsh Marches

High Court Judges:

  • Court of the King's Bench
  • Court of Exchequer
  • Court of Chancery

Circuit judges:

  • Assize Courts (local courts)
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The King's Law Enforcement Powers

  • The King had very strong law enforcement powers.
  • He appointed the judges and could expect favourable verdicts in important political cases.
  • The Privy Council could investigate any aspect of governmental business and punish any wrongdoers.
  • The Crown was at the head of the whole structure of government, appointing Lord Lieutenants and sheriffs in each county.
  • The King was also Supreme Head of the Church of England, and the Church courts enforced family law + punished offences like adultery and non-attendance of church.

However:

  • The king did not have all the power on his side.
  • There were limits in that Justices of the Peace (JPs), juries, constables, sheriffs and church wardens were all unpaid officials.
  • Meant that the government had to work by persuasion of these officials - coercion was not really effective.
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How Could the Crown 'Legislate'?

When Parliament was not sitting the only way the Crown could 'legislate' was to ensure that the existing laws of the land were reinterpreted. The King used two main institutions to achieve this:

  • 1) The Prerogative Courts.
  • 2) The Regional Councils.
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The Prerogative Courts (1)

The Court of Star Chamber:

  • Made up of members of the Privy Council chosen by the King.
  • The Crown could remove cases from the ordinary courts, such as conspiracy, riot or perjury, and have them heard in secret before the Court of Star Chamber.
  • Unlike in the common law courts, defendants could be questioned in private.
  • Star Chamber could not sentence a man to death but could inflict fines, imprisonment and corporal punishment.
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The Prerogative Courts (2)

The Court of High Commission:

  • The highest ecclesiastical court of the land, which could be used for enforcing religious uniformity.
  • Cases where the defendant was found guilty were passed to Star Chamber for sentencing.
  • After 1633 Archbishop Laud sat in both courts and is said to have made a point of passing the most severe sentences possible.
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The Regional Councils

The Council of the North:

  • Based in York.
  • It was used as a prerogative court to enforce royal policy on prominent northern families.

The Council of the Welsh Marches:

  • Based in Ludlow.
  • Originally used to protect England's border with Wales but this use had declined by the 17th century.
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The Case of William Prynn

  • William Prynn was a Puritan who wrote pamphlets critical of the government. He was opposed to the King's religious changes and was highly critical of stage plays, which he saw as sinful.
  • 1632 - Published a book called 'Histriomastic' in which he attacked the court for its plays + masques (spectacular stage performance combining theatre, opera, royal pageantry + ballet).
  • He referred to actresses as 'notorious whores'.
  • He was unlucky (if deliberate) in his timing, as Queen Henrietta Maria was taking part in a masque at court. His reference to whores was taken as a deliberate insult to the Queen.
  • Prynne was hauled before the Court of star Chamber.
  • He was fined £5000, deprived of his Oxford degree, expelled from Lincoln's Inn, pilloried, had the tops of his ears cut off (cropping), and was sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • Despite this, he continued to publish pamphlets from his prison cell.
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The King and Local Government

  • Today - Government is made up of 2 parts: the elected politicians who pass laws through Parliament, and the Civil Service, who translate the laws into action throughout the country. When Parliament passes a new law, the Civil Service enforces it.
  • 17th century - the Civil Service did not exist. Instead, the King relied on unpaid local officials to maintain the King's peace and execute laws.
  • These officials were members of the local landowning classes, so they were also those most affected by royal policy. So persuasion of these officials was generally much more effective to get them to act.
  • In the 1630s Charles placed these officials in an awkward situation - he called up on them to assist his efforts to raise more money though non-parliamentary methods. They reacted slowly, lazily and inefficiently, as they didn't like the policies.
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Who were the Local Officials?

  • Lord Lieutenants
  • Sheriffs
  • Justices of the Peace (JPs)
  • Constables
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Lord Lieutenants

  • They organised local defence for each county and mobilised the county militias into a national army at times of emergency.
  • The Deputy Lieutenants actually did most of the work, and were ill-equipped to train amateur militias.
  • They were appointed by the Crown from local aristocratic families.
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Sheriffs

  • The King chose the sheriff, who chose the constables to help him.
  • His main task was to administer justice, hold alleged criminals until trial.
  • He received judicial writs (legal instructions) and enforced the judgements of the courts.
  • In the 1630s the sheriff had to collect unpopular taxes, like Ship Money. Being a sheriff was a highly unpopular office.
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Justices of the Peace (JPs)

  • JPs depended on constables for the presentation of cases and offenders. They mostly judged less serious cases and sent more serious cases for trial by jury.
  • The Privy Council expected JPs to enforce increasing numbers of regulations.
  • They were not very reliable royal officials. They were local men, appointed on the advice of sheriffs and Lords Lieutenant.
  • They served for the honour of the office and the chance to increase their social standing.
  • They had the chance to belong to a wider political world, held together by the circuit judges in the half-yearly county assizes. All JPs had to attend these, where the importance of major national trials like the Ship Mony case (1637) would have been explained to them.
  • Charles I ruled without parliament but could not stifle national political debate.
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Constables

  • They policed the hundreds, the basic unit of local government within counties.
  • They were chosen from the local community and served for one year, unpaid.
  • They were ideally suited to upholding the common law but not to implementing central government policy.
  • Their loyalty was first to the community they served, then to the King.
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What Aspects of the System Would Increase the King

  • The Crown appointed Lord Lieutenants who organised local defence (support King's army).
  • The King chose the sheriff, who chose the constables. The sheriff administered justice and enforced the judgements of the courts.
  • JPs appointed on the advice of sheriffs and Lords Lieutenant so were indirectly chosen by the Crown.
  • Because the king chose these people he could have people loyal to him and get his own way + control.
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What Aspects of the System Would Not Strengthen Ro

  • Sheriffs were unpopular so many not have been as influential as the King would like.
  • JPs were not very reliable local men.
  • Loyalty of constables was to the community they served before the King.
  • Constables were unpaid, so slow and ineffective.
  • JPs not as reliably linked to the Crown as not chosen by the Crown directly, so less influenced by the King.
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Who was Wentworth?

  • Wentworth was a wealthy Yorkshire gentleman.
  • In the later 1620s he was a critic of the management of England's war in Europe and was out of favour with the Duke of Buckingham.
  • May 1627 - imprisoned for 6 weeks for not paying the Forced Loan (started off in minor opposition the King).
  • Yet in 1628 he accepted an appointment as president of the Council of the North, and from 1632 onwards he was the king's main official in the government of Ireland.
  • 1640 - created Earl of Strafford (a reward).
  • In the first session of the Long Parliament he was one of the prime targets of the parliamentary opposition to the king. He was executed in May 1641.
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What Was Thorough?

  • In letters between Wentworth and Laud they discuss something they call 'Thorough', a policy for control and uniformity.
  • The essence of Thorough was accountability, a government that looked at the actions of officials and held them responsible for oversights and mistakes. The idea was that people would do their jobs better and so would be a better government.
  • They thought that Charles' problems resulted from the fact that his government and the people that he employed were not doing their jobs. They thought that if the Church and the government could be made to work properly then Charles' relationship with his people would improve.
  • This appealed to Charles - a lot of his problems in the 1620s came from the inefficiency of local government and they way that unpaid officials were relied upon to enforce unpopular policies. He thought that if the officials feared the King more than their neighbours then the system would improve.
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The Books of Orders (1631)

  • 'The most ambitious scheme for the supervision of local government in the century.'
  • In January 1631 a total of 314 books of instructions were sent to key figures in local government, especially JPs - the royal court believed JPs had neglected their duties.
  • The Orders commanded JPs to report monthly to the Privy Council.
  • If JPs proved unworthy, they were to expect, 'punishment in our court of Star Chamber'.
  • The Books of Orders also made the responsibilities of officials clearer and laid out a system to make them accountable to higher authority through regular written reports.
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What Kind of Instructions did the Orders Contain?

Amongst other things, the Orders contained instructions regarding:

  • The collection and use of poor rates
  • The upkeep of roads and bridges
  • The movement of goods and the control of local markets
  • The treatment of beggars
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Why were they Issued?

  • Issued in 1631, following economic recession and poor harvests (rising prices, unemployment).
  • These provoked fears of the breakdown of society as unemployed and hungry labourers wandered from parish to parish (fear people would try to get food by any means).
  • It was probably a fear of the mob and a desire to preserve established order that persuaded Charles to issue the Book of Orders.
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What was the Impact of the Book of Orders?

  • Difficult to asses the impact of the Orders.
  • Most historians agree that they alleviated the worst of the social consequences of the economic crisis of 1629-30.
  • Despite this, a detailed record of the workings of the Orders across the country does not exist.
  • One estimate suggests that as few as 1/10 of the reports that should have been submitted by JPs were actually submitted (so maybe not so effective as stated above).
  • It seems that the council was unable to monitor JPs, as the Crown also had to levy ship money. As the economic depression lifted it became less necessary to impose the Books of Orders anyway.
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Reforms of the Militia

  • Made up of county-based soldiers who were mobilised only during times of national emergency (e.g. foreign invasion).
  • The militia had been shown as inadequate during the wars against France and Spain.
  • 1629 - Privy Council issued orders for the regular training and equipment of the county bands. This was to be overseen by the lords lieutenant and deputies.
  • 1630s were so peaceful so did not inject any sense of urgency into the process (felt there was no need at the time) and also doubts had arisen as to the legality of the Privy Council's actions.
  • The Parliamentary stature allowing the setting-up of local militias had been repealed in 1604. John Bishe of Brighton, for example, refused to attend militia musters because 'there was no law to enforce them'.
  • The militias may have been rejuvenated during the 1630s, but they performed poorly in the Bishops' Wars in 1639 and 1640.
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Why was Wentworth's Time as Lord Deputy of Ireland

  • Important period in the history of Anglo-Irish relations.
  • Marked a major attempt by the English state to impose a particular kind of ordered government on a territory that had its own traditions of government.
  • Ireland had been in chaos for a number of years.
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The Regional Councils

The Council of the North:

  • Based in York.
  • It was used as a prerogative court to enforce royal policy on prominent northern families.

The Council of the Welsh Marches:

  • Based in Ludlow.
  • Originally used to protect England's border with Wales but this use had declined by the 17th century.
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What did Wentworth Do to Achieve this Goal?

Three particular strategies:

  • 1) He called the Irish parliament in 1634-5. It agreed to a vote of 6 subsidies. A similarly carefully supervised meeting in 1640 resulted in a grant of 4 more subsidies.
  • 2)He doubled the amount of income received from customs (goods being moved were taxed). A new Book of Rates helped to increase income from this source from £40 000 in 1633 to £80 000 in 1640.
  • 3) He converted all doubtful claims to land into tenures from the Crown, thus increasing revenues from Crown lands. This was achieved by setting up a Commission for Defective Titles in 1634, a body that would systematically revise the terms on which land was held from the Crown. The monarch could then demand his feudal dues.
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The Case of William Prynn

  • William Prynn was a Puritan who wrote pamphlets critical of the government. He was opposed to the King's religious changes and was highly critical of stage plays, which he saw as sinful.
  • 1632 - Published a book called 'Histriomastic' in which he attacked the court for its plays + masques (spectacular stage performance combining theatre, opera, royal pageantry + ballet).
  • He referred to actresses as 'notorious whores'.
  • He was unlucky (if deliberate) in his timing, as Queen Henrietta Maria was taking part in a masque at court. His reference to whores was taken as a deliberate insult to the Queen.
  • Prynne was hauled before the Court of star Chamber.
  • He was fined £5000, deprived of his Oxford degree, expelled from Lincoln's Inn, pilloried, had the tops of his ears cut off (cropping), and was sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • Despite this, he continued to publish pamphlets from his prison cell.
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Who were the Old English? Why were they Alienated?

  • Descendants of the English who had settled in Ireland in the middle ages.
  • Distressed by Wentworth's manipulation of the Irish parliament.
  • He offered only a selective granting of The Graces: He refused to pass those that diminished the king's title to land.
  • They opposed Wentworth's policy of plantation - importing a Protestant population at the expense of the existing population.
  • Galway: Old English fined for refusing to support the policy.
  • By challenging existing land ownership, Wentworth created a lot of resentment and fear.
  • 'Part of the explanation for the rising of the Old English in rebellion in 1641 must be attributed to Wentworth's decision to proceed with the plantation of Galway at all costs and to the ruthless manner in which he crushed all opposition.'
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The King and Local Government

  • Today - Government is made up of 2 parts: the elected politicians who pass laws through Parliament, and the Civil Service, who translate the laws into action throughout the country. When Parliament passes a new law, the Civil Service enforces it.
  • 17th century - the Civil Service did not exist. Instead, the King relied on unpaid local officials to maintain the King's peace and execute laws.
  • These officials were members of the local landowning classes, so they were also those most affected by royal policy. So persuasion of these officials was generally much more effective to get them to act.
  • In the 1630s Charles placed these officials in an awkward situation - he called up on them to assist his efforts to raise more money though non-parliamentary methods. They reacted slowly, lazily and inefficiently, as they didn't like the policies.
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How did Wentworth Annoy the City of London?

  • Corporation of London (very rich + wealthy group), which had received a large grant of land in Londonderry for a very low rent, failed to fulfil its obligations towards the area.
  • 1635 - fined £70 000 (massive amount). This created dangerous resentment (not good because they were rich and important).
  • Consequence: 1639 the King needed support of the City, but it offered him only £5000.
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Governing Ireland and Wentworth's Recall

  • Governing Ireland was always difficult (different groups of people there).
  • Events in Scotland after 1637 made it even more so.
  • The success of the Covenanters bred a common interest between the regime in Scotland and the Scots in Ulster.
  • 'Successful Scots' defiance of royal power had roused intense excitement among those of the native Irish who were not reconciled to conquest. The Scots had revealed the fragility of royal and English power, and many of the Irish resolved to follow their example.'
  • The Scottish crisis led to Wentworth's recall from Ireland in 1639.
  • Wentworth became the prime servant of his king and thus achieved a long-standing ambition. He became the Earl of Strafford.
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What was the Effect of Wentworth's Recall on Irela

  • Political vacuum which helped cause the Irish Rebellion of October 1641. Wentworth had a lot of influence - no one to step in when he was withdrawn.
  • While he ruled Ireland he maintained order and peace, but the methods he used stored up problems that came to the surface when he had gone.
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Financial Policies in Personal Rule

  • Financial policies in the 1630s consisted mainly of attempts to reduce expenditure and increase income.
  • These attempts were made by Richard Weston, Francis Cottingham and later William Juxon.
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Reduction of Expenditure

  • Avoiding war: The 1620s had seen £500 000 spent on military and naval preparations, while by 1635 that had been reduced to £66 000.
  • Cutting back on expenditure at court - Pensions and annuities (yearly payments to people in courts - wages) were reduced by 35%.
  • Ordinary revenue was increased by 25%, cutting the annual crown deficit to just £18 000.
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Increase Income

  • Applying recusancy laws more rigorously: By 1635 they were bringing in £27 000 p.a. as opposed to only £5000 in 1630.
  • Sale of crown lands: Brought in £650 000 between 1625 and 1635.
  • Applying half-forgotten feudal dues: The king revived medieval laws and applied them here, e.g:
    • Distraint of knighthood
    • Purveyance
    • Commission for Defective Titles
    • Fines for living within the expanded boundaries of the royal forests
    • Sale of monopolies
    • Ship money
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Half-Forgotten Feudal Dues (1)

  • Distraint of knighthood: All those worth £40 p.a. or more (a substantial number by 1630 because of inflation) were obliged to be knighted in service to the monarch. It was decided to fine anyone who, despite any qualifying circumstances, had failed to do this at the time of the king's coronation (a lot of people affected). By the end of the 1630s, fines from this source had raised a total of £174 000 from 9000 people.
  • Purveyance: The Crown's right to purchase commodities at a reduced price. This brought in £30 000 p.a. between 1630-5.
  • Commission for Defective Titles: Fines were imposed on people who could not prove that they owned land once owned by the Crown.
  • Fines for living within the (expanded) boundaries of royal forests: This produced about £40 00. Maps were redrawn so people were fined.
  • Wardship revenue: Collected more carefully in the 1630s, bringing in £55 000 p.a. - 3 times as much as 1613. Wards were orphaned wealthy children, money inherited usually paid for care. Often exploited.
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Half-Forgotten Feudal Dues (2)

  • Sale of monopolies: Exploiting a loophole in the 1624 act which had banned the grant of monopolies (exclusive right to sell an item) to individuals. Companies were not included in the act, so in 1632 Charles licensed the manufacture of soap to a company in return for £4 per tonne of soap sold. Good short term, not good long term.
  • Ship money: The Crown had the right to demand money from coastal towns + counties during national emergencies in order to build a fleet. Between 1634 and 1640 nearly £800 000 was paid in ship money. This was considerably more than the total value of subsidies received during the whole of Charles' reign. The enormity of this sum can be explained by two factors in particular:
    • In 1635 it was extended to inland counties of England + Wales on the basis that it was 'just and reasonable' that all who might benefit from a fleet that kept the shores safe from pirates + foreign invasion should contribute. However this was against precedent and some argued that it was unconstitutional.
    • Based upon new methods of assessment which affected more people than a parliamentary subsidy - 4 times as many in Essex.
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Other Incomes and Collective Effect

  • There was also growth in tonnage + poundage and impositions.
  • Peace had a beneficial effect on trade + therefore also upon the King's income from customs duties. These totalled £358 000 in 1635.

Collective effort:

  • By 1637 the collective effort of these financial expedients was that the annual revenue was more than £1 million - 50% higher than it had been in real terms in 1625.
  • Even the Crown jewels, pawned in the 1620s, had been redeemed by the end of the 1630s.
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Applying Recusancy Laws

Who would have been annoyed?

  • Catholics, as the recusancy laws fined Catholics for practising their faith.
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Distraint of Knighthood

Who would have been annoyed?

  • Anyone affected as they didn't realise at the time they needed to get knighted so wouldn't think the fines were fair (backdated rules).
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Purveyance

Who would have been annoyed?

  • People selling commodities because they'd get less money from their sales.
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Living Within Expanded Forest Boundaries

Who would have been annoyed?

  • Residents in this area would've been angry because if the boundaries hadn't been moved they wouldn't have to pay tax (unfair).
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Wardship Revenue

Who would have been annoyed?

  • The children were often exploited and were sometimes left with little money by the tme they came of age.
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Ship Money

Who would have been annoyed?

  • Residents not on the coast would feel they shouldn't have to pay as it's not really relevent to them.
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Cutting Back on Expenditure at Court

Who would have been annoyed?

  • Those working for the court as they would receive less money in pensions + annuities.
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Why Attempt This?

  • Charles could not afford to have Ireland as a drain upon English finances.
  • A financially independent Ireland was his goal.
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Effects of Financial Policies (3)

  • This close income still did not effect the collection of ship money - it only encouraged delay of payment whilst people awaited a judgement.
  • Until end of 1639, more than 90% of ship money was paid: £200 000 per annum.
  • There were constitutional fears concerning ship money. Many of those who refused to pay forced loans in the 1620s on constitutional grounds refused to pay ship money.
  • The most convincing evidence of the depth of opposition lies in the petitions to and speeches in the parliament of 1640.
  • It was only the attempt to fight the Scots in the First Bishops' War without calling a parliament - the first time this had happened since 1323 - that induced a taxpayers' strike and resulted in the levy falling to about 20%.
  • 'Ship money aroused the most furious opposition in the provinces, and this "fact" is generally accepted. In fact, there is scarcely any evidence for it, and what there is, is associated with predictable individuals like the earl of Warwick and Lord Saye and Sele.'
  • For most of the 1630s, Englishmen paid their taxes.
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Effects of Financial Policies (1)

Distraint of Knighthood:

  • 1634 - Sir David Foulis attempted to gain support in Yorkshire against the levying of distraint of knighthood.
  • This met with little sympathy, possibly because it was viewed as rivalry with Wentworth rather than principled resistance.
  • However there were a significantly large number of people affected by this tax.
  • Also, the Long Parliament, which met from November 1640, abolished it. This suggestes that distraint of knighthood had created disaffection.

Forest Fines:

  • This caused opposition amongst wealthy & powerful people.
  • Some were fined huge sums in the forest courts.
  • The Earl of Salisbury is one example - he was fined £20 000 for his estates within Rockingham Forest.
  • Even though fines were sometimes reduced, they did cause grievance.
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What was the Effect of these Strategies?

  • 'For the first time since the later middle ages the English government was not called upon to make a substantial contribution to the Irish exchequer or to give way on important issues in return for a subsidy from the Irish parliament.'
  • For the first time Ireland was profitable to the English Crown.

Were all the effects positive?

  • No - This was only achieved at the cost of alienating each of the 2 main groups in Ireland: the Old English and the New English. He also annoyed the City of London.

Why would English Puritans be worried about Wentworth's policies in Ireland?

  • System was quite effective - worried it would be inflicted on England.
  • Ireland was Catholic so they were concerned that income from Irish might encourage more Catholic influence.
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Personal Rule: Ecclesiastical Policies - Laudianis

  • Some, as many as 15 000, decided they could no longer worship in the Church of England and emigrated to the New World.
  • Those who remained tried to resit the advance of their enemies but this became increasingly difficult in Personal Rule as the absence of parliament deprived them of a platform for their views.
  • Also Laudians occupied the two Archbishoprics of York + Canterbury.
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Who were the New English? How were they Antagonise

  • English and Scottish settlers who had arrived in the past 50 years and who were Protestant.
  • Resented Wentworth's attempts to impose High Church Laudianism on Ireland.
  • Since Wentworth sympathised with Laud's ambition to improve the fabric of the church, the lord deputy considered it important to resume those church lands and properties that had been impropriated by laymen.
  • Wentworth clashed with Richard Boyle, earl of Cork, the leading English landowner. 1634 - Cork summoned before Court of Star Chamber and was fined £15 000.
  • Sir Francis Annesley, Lord Mountnorris, who received about £20 000 from the customs farm of 1635, was court-martialled on a trumped-up charge of treason.
  • Wentworth therefore antagonised the new English who should have been his natural ally.
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Why Such Strong Reactions? (1)

The answer lies in another common contemporary description of Laudians as 'innovators'. They were felt to be making revolutionary changes to Church and government for the following reasons:

  • Unlike James, Charles promoted + patronised them to the exclusion of all other factions within the Church.
  • Since they preferred the doctrine of free will (could do things to get into heaven, i.e. good deeds), they represented a challenge to the predominance of the Calvinist theology of predestination within the Church (Calvinists thought people were chosen from birth to go to heaven).
  • Laudians shifted the emphasis of church services away from preaching + sermons towards the sacraments + ceremony. They wanted ministers to wear elaborate vestments and images + stained glass windows to be restored to churches. The importance of prayer was stressed at the expense of preaching.
  • There was renewed concern about bowing to the altar and kneeling during communion.
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Personal Rule: Ecclesiastical Policies - Laudianis

  • Biggest cause of opposition to Charles during Personal Rule was his attempt to impose religious uniformity on all his British kingdoms.
  • Charles was greatly attracted to 'anti-Calvinism' or 'Arminianism'.
  • At the time of Personal Rule the most important anti-Calvinist was William Laud, who was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633.
  • Laudianism is used to describe Charles' ecclesiastical policies.
  • Laud's work in terms of religious policies tie in strongly with Strafford's policies of 'Thorough'.
  • Historians disagree as to the opposition raised by Laudianism.
  • Most believe that it raised violent hatred in England.
  • Others say that the reforms were poorly implemented and numbers prosecuted were small and tended to be from the south east.
  • Lord Brooke, a prominent Puritan, called Laudians 'excrementa mundi' - the refuse of the world.
  • Also true that Calvinists, now portrayed as Puritan extremists by Laudians, had previously been the mainstream group in the religious spectrum.
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Why Such Strong Reactions? (3)

  • Laud wanted uniformity + central control over the clergy, and aimed to achieve this by enhancing the power and authority of the church hierarchy, particularly the authority of bishops (this also reinforced the Divine Right of Kings). Bishops had to reside in their dioceses (areas where they ruled) and there was a campaign launched against unlicensed preachers. The most prominent victim of this was the Feoffees of Impropriations, an institution organised by a group of laymen who purchased tithes which were then used to support godly (Puritan) and learned preachers - Laud regarded these as instruments of the Puritan faction and dissolved the group in February 1633.
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Why Such Strong Reactions? (4)

  • Laudians wanted the clergy to play a much great role in lay affairs, e.g. William Juxon, Bishop of London, the Lord Treasurer from 1635, was the first cleric to hold a major secular post since the Reformation. Laud also gave the church courts the power to interfere in secular matters. In 1627 Laud and Neill were made Privy Councillors, and sat in Star Chamber. There they dealt out harsh punishments to those who criticised the religious changes, e.g. Prynne, Burton + Bastwicke and John Lilburne. The case of Alexander Leighton was another example of this. He attacked bishops in a Puritan pamphlet. He was fined, pilloried, lashed, had his ears cut off, his nose slit and his cheeks branded as a punishment. This kind of treatment caused most of the political resentment against Laudianism.
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Why Such Strong Reactions? (2)

  • Keen that other holy days of the church should not take second place to Sundays, which many Protestants felt should be set aside for worship + spiritual meditation, the king reissued the Book of Sports in 1633. It allowed people to engage in a wide variety of activities & recreations on a Sunday, after they had been to church (very unpopular idea).
  • Laudians insisted that altars be re-sited in a central place in churches: at the east end, not in the nave. This often necessitated rearranging family pews, which caused great offence as the lay out reflection social order - people didn't want to be moved about.
  • Churches were refurbished, which was extensive + expensive. These financial burdens fell upon the laity. Many churches had been dilapidated after years of neglect, with lead stolen from roofs, animals wandering freely into church + churches used as pig sties, stables & markets.
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Points of Conflict with the Puritans (1)

Bowing to the altar:

  • Puritans believed that faith was all that was needed, not ceremony and ritual.

Predestination and free will:

  • Puritans believed people's future (heaven / hell) was predetermined at birth whereas Laudians preferred the doctrine of free will.

Less preaching + sermons and more sacraments + ceremony:

  • Puritans didn't like ceremony etc. as they thought it wasn't necessary.
  • They thought "pretty" things were a distraction, unlike Laudians who thought they glorified God.
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Threat of the Laudian Reforms

  • For many, this appeared to be a reversal of the Reformation. It also appeared to threaten the social and political power of the nobility and the gentry (talked about systems, order + may affect people's vested interests).
  • Laudian reforms acquired political connotations because they were taken as evidence of a 'Popish plot', long a fear of English Protestants.
  • People believed that a fifth column (Catholic spies) had infiltrated the court, committed to the overthrow of religion and established liberties.
  • In John Pym's speech to the Short Parliament, on 17 April 1640, he spoke about religious grievances:
    • 'That great encouragement which is given to them of the popish religion by a universal suspension of all laws that are made against them, and some of them admitted into public places of trust and power.'
  • He was saying that ordinary Catholics were being given more freedom + might start getting ideas to take over.
  • Bore little relation to the true experiences of Catholics at this time, but there still appears to have been a general belief in the existence of a popish plot.
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How Did Charles Anger the Scots?

  • In 1625 Charles angered Scottish nobles by announcing his intention to revoke all gifts of land by the Crown and the Kirk (Scottish Church - more Puritan than the English Church) made since 1540. He did this without reference to anyone, even the Scottish Privy Council.
  • He made his first visit to Scotland in 1633 and was crowned in Edinburgh. This was 8 years after James I died and he became King (long time after).
  • Charles decided to bring Scotland's religious practice into line with England's. He was appalled by the Scottish Presbyterians' lack of ceremony and unscripted prayers during his visit, and decided to introduce a new Prayer Book throughout Scotland from July 1637. Again, he did this without seeking advice from the Scottish Privy Council, the Scottish Parliament or the General Assembly of the Kirk.
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Points of Conflict with the Puritans (2)

Book of Sports:

  • Protestants thought Sundays should be set aside for worship, so they should engage in activities on that day like the Book of Sports suggested.

Altars relocated:

  • Rearranging family pews caused great offence.

Campaign against unlicensed preachers:

  • Feoffees of Impropriations who supported Puritan preachers were dissolved in February 1633.

Clergy played a greater role in lay affairs:

  • Laud + Neill were made Privy Councillors in the Star Chamber, dealing out harsh punishments to those who criticised the religious changes.
  • Men of God shouldn't be governing the state.
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What in Personal Rule Made People Fear a Catholic

  • Henrietta Maria - The presence at court of a Catholic queen meant that her household became a focal point for Catholics. Papal agents were welcomed at court for the first time since 1558, and the Catholic queen mother, Marie de Medici, joined the court in 1638. This caused a wave of high profile conversions at court.
  • These events took place against a backdrop of the Thirty Years' War, seen by many as a straightforward fight between Catholicism and Protestantism but a war in which England seemed for much of the time to be pursuing the friendship or neutrality of Catholic Spain.
  • These made the religious policies of Charles and Laud appear to many to be an attempt to reintroduce 'popish rites'.
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What Happened Next in Scotland? (1)

23 July 1637:

  • A riot broke out in St. Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh, when Dean Hannah tried to read the service from the new liturgy (set pattern of worship followed in a Church service).
  • A woman called Jenny Geddes threw her stool at the Dean, who was pelted with objects in a carefully planned demonstration of popular outrage.
  • The new Prayer Book provoked so much violence of this type that the Bishop of Brechin threatened his congregation with two loaded pistols while he read the new service.

November 1637:

  • An emergency government known as 'The Tables' was quickly formed from the Scottish Parliament to organise opposition to the Prayer Book.
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What were the Consequences of the Prayer Book's In

  • Aroused Scottish nationalism because of the way it was introduced.
  • King needed as much support as possible at the time because his religious policies more generally were unpopular.
  • King alienated many of the people who would otherwise have been his natural supporters.
  • Credibility of Scotland's bishops was undermined after their attempts to persuade Charles to modify the Prayer Book failed. This had been undermined before when Charles appointed bishops to the Scottish Privy Council, something that had never been done before.
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What Happened Next in Scotland? (2)

February 1638:

  • The Tables drew up the National Covenant. This was a declaration of allegiance that bound together Scottish nationalism and the Calvinist faith.
  • Those who took it were called Covenanters, and they took a sacred religious + patriotic pledge to defend the true religion and Scotland's political rights.
  • It condemned Charles' innovations and the Prayer Book.

November 1638:

  • The General Assembly of the Kirk abolished Scotland's bishops completely.
  • Wiped away all James I's hard work in securing any role for bishops in Scotland.
  • Also bans the Prayer Book.
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Effects of Financial Policies (2)

Sale of Monopolies:

  • It is not likely that this would've been any more acceptable than previously, especially when Charles blatantely sold them for financial and not commercial reasons.

Ship Money:

  • Attracted the greatest number of complaints.
  • Most of these concerned the level of tax rather than the principle of it.
  • John Hampden raised the greatest challenge to the levying of ship money. He refused to pay ship money in 1636-7.
  • He challenged a previous court ruling that allowed Charles to command his subjects to pay a levy without recourse to parliament in times of national danger.
  • Although 5/12 judges gave judgement in Hampden's favour (significant considering judges appointed by, and therefore loyal to, the king), the court ruled in favour of the Crown.
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The First Bishops' War (1639) (1)

What did the King expect would happen?

  • Thought his army would easily win against the Scots - the Scots had not won a war with England since 1314 and there was nothing to suggest that this would be different from recent history.
  • King did not even expect to have to fight a real war - the Duke of Hamilton would take the English fleet into the Firth of Forth, cutting off Edinburgh from the Highlands.
  • The English army would assemble at York before invading Scotland.
  • The Scots were expected to desert rathr than face their King in battle. This would then lead to a negotiated settlement at the arrest of the leading Covenanters.
  • Earl of Arundel appointed Captain-General and Earl of Essex supported him.
  • King then angered both by giving Lord Holland independent control of the calvalry.
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The First Bishops' War (1639) (2)

Not a straight forward Scotland vs. England fight:

  • King had Scottish advisers + counted on support from within Scotland to appear onec he arrived in force.
  • Expected victory to strengthen his position in England, showing the opposition how futile resistance was.
  • Members of the Puritan network were worried - opened secret negotiations with the Scots (English Puritans tended to be on the side of the Scots).
  • Charles used the war to embarrass his noble English opponents.
  • From York he caleld upon all the English lords to join his army with money + weapons.
  • He demanded that they take an oath of allegiance. Lord Saye and Sele and Lord Brooke (Puritans) refused, leading to a brief period of imprisonment.
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Commission for Defective Titles

Who would have been annoyed?

  • Land owners without proof would be angered to pay fines.
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The First Bishops' War (1639) (3)

The King's reaction:

  • King's delusion of an easy victory lasted until his army crossed the border into Scotland.
  • His decision to give Lord Holland independent command backfired when the cavalry, far in front of the infantry, ran unsupported into the Scottish army at Kelso.
  • Leslie had drawn his army up on the forward slope of a hill, and dispersed them so as to give the impression that the army was larger than it really was.
  • English cavalry turned, fell back to join the infantry and gave exaggerated reports of the Scots' strength.
  • King realized that the Scots were prepared to fight + that his own army was in no state to take them on.
  • Made his whole strategy (that the Scots would run away) useless.
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The Short Parliament

Why did the King decide to call Parliament?

  • In September 1639 the King brought Wentworth back from Ireland to advise him on what to do next.
  • Wentworth advised he called Parliament. He thought the King could win over Parliament with bribes, threats, skilful speeches + anti-Scottish patriotism.
  • Charles consulted a secret committee of the Privy Council, who also recommended that he call a new Parliament.
  • They thought that doing so would bring a lot of positive support.
  • A letter had been intercepted from the Scots to the King of France asking for help against England - it was expected that calling Parliament would also focus the minds of the MPs and increase loyalty to the Crown.
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The First Bishops' War (1639) (3)

What actually happened -Scots?

  • Scottish army did not flee on his approach.
  • Scottish commander, Alexander Leslie, was a veteran of the Thirty Years' War in Germany.
  • Many Scots had served in the Swedish army, fighting for the Protestant cause.
  • Across Scotland these veterans began to arm themselves and seize key places, e.g. Edinburgh Castle.
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The Short Parliament - Dissolved after 3 Weeks

  • The King demanded that Parliament vote taxes before he would consider its grievances.
  • House of Commons was led by John Pym and John Hampden, who were determined to call the government to account for Personal Rule.
  • Wentworth was unexpectedly delayed in Ireland by illness.
  • When Parliament looked next at religion, the King quickly dissolved Parliament.
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Who Didn't Expect the Short Parliament to Succeed?

The King:

  • Didn't expect the Short Parliament to succeed.
  • No previous Parliaments in his reign had.
  • Must have realised MPs would want grievances addressed.

The Godly MPs (Puritans):

  • Hard to believe they wanted the SP to succeed.
  • Would mean granting subsidies to fight the Scots.
  • Wanted Parliament to fail without taking the blame.

The Scots:

  • Hard to believe they wanted the SP to succeed - would result in King raising more money for war.
  • But - Must have known that only an English parliament could protect Scots from Charles' religious policy.
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Who Didn't Expect the Short Parliament to Succeed?

The King:

  • Didn't expect the Short Parliament to succeed.
  • No previous Parliaments in his reign had.
  • Must have realised MPs would want grievances addressed.

The Godly MPs (Puritans):

  • Hard to believe they wanted the SP to succeed.
  • Would mean granting subsidies to fight the Scots.
  • Wanted Parliament to fail without taking the blame.

The Scots:

  • Hard to believe they wanted the SP to succeed - would result in King raising more money for war.
  • But - Must have known that only an English parliament could protect Scots from Charles' religious policy.
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Raising Money for War

The decision to renew the war against the Scots:

  • King was determined to fight another war against the Scots.
  • Privy Council met the day after Parliament was dissolved to discuss the King's options.
  • Like in Personal Rule, Parliament's failure to provide finance could be used to justify the King raising his own taxes.
  • Offers for loans totalling £360 000 came in from private individuals + corporations - far short of what was needed.
  • King needed the support of the City of London, but the City refused to loan the King money unless he recalled Parliament.
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Which Group Wanted the Short Parliament to Succeed

Moderate MPs:

  • Most MPs wanted Parliament to succeed.
  • Wanted the King & Parliament to work together to 'heal the nation's wounds'.
  • But - War with Scotland was unpopular.
  • These were quieter so not that influential, despite their numbers.
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Which Group Wanted the Short Parliament to Succeed

Moderate MPs:

  • Most MPs wanted Parliament to succeed.
  • Wanted the King & Parliament to work together to 'heal the nation's wounds'.
  • But - War with Scotland was unpopular.
  • These were quieter so not that influential, despite their numbers.
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The Second Bishops' War (1640)

  • English army once again moved towards Scotland.
  • King had a lot of trouble finding a commander for it - Earl of Northumberland said he was ill, Wentworth also ill, struck down with gout. The King stayed in London (so no strong figurehead of the army).
  • Scots equally were not prepared to wait for the English to invade.
  • While most of the King's army was still at York, the Scots won an easy victory at the Battle of Newburn + captured Newcastle. Crucial as it supplied London with coal (very important for industry).
  • As Wentworth was unable to help due to illness the English army was paralysed with indecision.
  • Desertion weakened the ranks + the Covenanters were corresponding with the opponents of Personal Rule.
  • Charles I became desperate, and called a meeting of the lords of the realm.
  • 24 September 1640 - Council of Peers met at York. Advice was clear - King had to recall Parliament.
  • Immediate task was to prevent the Scots marching on York (a major city).
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The Treaty of Ripon - 21 October 1640

On 21 October 1640 the King signed the Treaty of Ripon. This agreed to the following terms:

  • The Scots would continue to occupy Newcastle until a settlement was reached.
  • The King would pay the Scots £850 a day until this was done (a lot of money back then).
  • The English Parliament would be recalled (Scots knew when Parliament was recalled it would attack the King).

In November 1640 the King issued writs to the county sheriffs to hold another parliamentary election. The period of Personal Rule was over.

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William Laud (1573-1644) (1)

  • At Oxford developed anti-Puritanism that was his most obvious characteristic when he became a prince of the Church.
  • Promoted through a leading Arminian, Bishop of Rochester, to whom he became chaplain in 1608.
  • Became Dean of Gloucester in 1615. Signalled his arrival by having the communion table moved from the centre of the cathedral to the chancel + converted into an altar.
  • Slow advance through the ranks of the church reflected the hostility of George Abbot, the Puritan Archbishop of Canterbury + James I's doubts about Laud.
  • Laud's attachment to the Duke of Buckingham gained him the bishopric of St. David's in 1621.
  • Ascension of Charles I was decisive in Laud's career - Charles' ideas on doctrine + church government were in entire harmony with his own.
  • Laud preached the sermon at the opening of Charles' first parliament in 1625, stressing the divine authority of royal authority.
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William Laud (1573-1644) (2)

  • Supplied Buckingham with lists of Arminian churchmen to promote and Puritans to hold back.
  • 1629 - bishop of Bath and Wells, then bishop of London.
  • Rise was assisted by the troubles of Abbot, who had been suspended from office in 1627 for his opposition to Charles' policies.
  • Laud was one of a commission of 5 bishops appointed to carry out Abbot's duties + became the dominant figure in the Church of England.
  • Laud became Archbishop of Canterbury when Abbot died in 1633 and remained so until his execution in 1645.
  • Achieved little after the Bishops' Wars in 1639.
  • For the last 3 and a half years of his life he was a prisoner, almost forgotten, in the Tower of London.
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What was Laud's Character?

  • Obsession with detail and the day-to-day operation of the Church that tended to obscure his larger purpose.
  • General inability to get on with others.
  • Suffered from a dangerous impatience, perhaps exacerbated by his advancing years (was 60 when appointed Archbishop and may have realised his time was limited).
  • Never personally close to the king, and could not get on with the queen.
  • Reacted badly to criticism + was particularly sensitive to remarks about his low birth. This produced a strong sense of insecurity, which perhaps accounts for his selfless commitment to public service.
  • Quest was efficiency, attention to detail + zeal to get things done, which made him a nuisance to many.
  • Was indefatigable in implementing anti-Calvinist reforms, even at the expense of his own health.
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Why Did Personal Rule Come to an End?

Following possible reasons:

  • Puritan opposition 'network'.
  • Trial of Prynne, Burton and Bastwick in 1637.
  • Ship Money trial, 1637.
  • Antagonising of the King's natural supporters.
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William Laud (1573-1644) (2)

  • Supplied Buckingham with lists of Arminian churchmen to promote and Puritans to hold back.
  • 1629 - bishop of Bath and Wells, then bishop of London.
  • Rise was assisted by the troubles of Abbot, who had been suspended from office in 1627 for his opposition to Charles' policies.
  • Laud was one of a commission of 5 bishops appointed to carry out Abbot's duties + became the dominant figure in the Church of England.
  • Laud became Archbishop of Canterbury when Abbot died in 1633 and remained so until his execution in 1645.
  • Achieved little after the Bishops' Wars in 1639.
  • For the last 3 and a half years of his life he was a prisoner, almost forgotten, in the Tower of London.
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The Trial of Prynne, Burton and Bastwick (1637)

  • William Prynne came before the Court of Star Chamber for a second time in 1637, along with fellow Puritans John Bastwick and Henry Burton, this time accused of attacking the bishops.
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Sale of Monopolies

Who would have been annoyed?

  • Rival companies to the one that got the monopoly because they'd be put out of business.
  • Buyers would pay more as monopolies would charge more (no competition).
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The Ship Money Trial (1637) (1)

  • Opposition to Ship Money had been building sine 1635, with opponents of Charles' financial policies searching for a case with which to test its legality in court.
  • They found one in John Hampden - he was a highly respected gentleman, encouraged in his resistance by Lord Saye and Sele.
  • His trial focused attention on the use of non-parliamentary taxation.
  • The case was heard before the Exchequer Court. Consisted of 12 judges (picked by the king).
  • The trial aroused huge public interest. Before the case came to court county sheriffs reported a much slower response to the tax, as people awaited the verdict, although it picked up again once the trial was over.
  • Hampden did not deny refusing to pay the tax, so the Crown's case rested on two assertions:
    • 1) The King had the right to command his subjects to pay Ship Money when the Kingdom was in danger.
    • 2) The King was the 'sole judge both of the danger, and when and how the same is to be prevented and avoided.' (King's legal right to decide).
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The Ship Money Trial (1637) (2)

  • The argument was the same as for the Forced Loan of 1626 - the kingdom faced a national emergency due to the threat of invasion and it was the King's right to provide for its security, with or without Parliament.
  • In 1626, though, the kingdom was at war. In 1637 it wasn't.
  • The King had to argue that because the Navy was unprepared the kingdom was at risk, as ships took a long time to build. If the Crown were to wait for a war then it would be too late.
  • Hampden's defence lawyer was Oliver St. John. He did not deny the King's right to levy taxes in an emergency.
  • He argued that England was not at war, and that Ship Money writs gave the King's subjects 7 months to pay the tax - plenty of time to call Parliament to grant more money in an emergency.
  • He also used the trial as an opportunity to explain the role played in English government by Parliament and the law courts (used the trial to speak out).
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What Happened Next in Scotland? (3)

Later in 1638:

  • Charles decides to use force.

1638:

  • Charles announces concessions (compromise) to the Covenanters, but these were no more than a ploy to buy time so that he could prepare his English army for a military expedition to Scotland.
  • The hope that he could intimidate them was dashed by the news that they, too, were preparing for war.

March 1639:

  • Scottish General David Leslie seizes Edinburgh Castle.

June 1639:

  • English army invades Scotland.
  • First Bishops' War.
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What Suggested Ship Money was Illegal?

  • There was no war on at the time so no need for a Navy.
  • If a Navy was needed there was plenty of time to get the money (Parliament could be called to grant more money in an emergency).
  • Parliament might be needed to be called in order to demand a tax.
  • 5 judges ruled against Crown despite leaning towards Charles, demonstrating the illegality of the tax.
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What Suggested Ship Money was Legal?

  • It was the King's right to levy a tax when he thought it was necessary.
  • Tax there so boats could be used in preparation for a war as Charles claimed otherwise they couldn't be built in time.
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The Antagonising of the King's Natural Supporters

Several groups of people were antagonised by the King's policies:

  • Revival of Forest Laws
  • Distraint of Knighthood
  • Monopolies
  • Abolition of Feoffees for Impropriations
  • Use of prerogative courts
  • Ship Money

These people included:

  • Puritans
  • Sheriffs and MPs
  • County gentry
  • Common lawyers
  • Common people
  • Aristocracy
  • Merchants
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Revival of Forest Laws

Antagonised:

  • County gentry
  • Aristocracy
  • Common People

Reasons:

  • Greatest landowners were most likely to have unwittingly encroached on medieval forests + be liable for fines.
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Distraint of Knighthood

Antagonised:

  • County gentry

Reasons:

  • Gentlemen with enough income to qualify were specifically targeted.
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The First Bishops' War (1639) (4)

How did the 'war' end?

  • Charles had little choice - he opened negotiations with the Scots at Berwick-upon-Tweed.
  • Treaty called the Pacification of Berwick - both sides agreed to disband their armies + the King agreed to a Scottish General Assembly and Parliament.
  • Treaty solved nothing - Scots refused to disband + the King began preparing for another war.
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Abolition of Feoffees for Impropriations

Antagonised:

  • Puritans

Reasons:

  • Undermined efforts to improve the quality of parish clergy + to bring God's Word to all people.
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Use of Prerogative Courts

Antagonised:

  • Sheriffs and MPs
  • Common lawyers

Reasons:

  • Insisted that the King had to rule within the existing law of the land.
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Ship Money

Antagonised:

  • Common people
  • County gentry
  • Sheriffs and MPs

Reasons:

  • Sheriffs placed in an awkward position, being expected to force their friends and neighbours to pay an unpopular and arguably illegal tax.
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