William The Conqueror.
William was an excellent soldier.
He was a distant relative of Edward.
Edward spent early years in Normandy.
Claimed Harold promised him the throne.
Claimed Edward promised him the throne.
We was the Duke Of Normandy.
Why did he invade. William laid claim to the English throne after Edward died. He was a distant cousin of Edward and said that Edward had promised him the throne when visiting France in 1051. He even said his claim had been accepted by Harold Godwinson in 1064, when Harold had been blown onto the Norman shore by a storm. William invaded England to become King and claim the throne from Harold.
Why did he invade England?
Why did he invade.
William laid claim to the English throne after Edward died. He was a distant cousin of Edward and said that Edward had promised him the throne when visiting France in 1051. He even said his claim had been accepted by Harold Godwinson in 1064, when Harold had been blown onto the Norman shore by a storm. William invaded England to become King and claim the throne from Harold.
The castles were called Motte and Bailey castles. William made sure that only his loyal supporter were about to build castles because they had to be given permission to build. William did this so he wanted to be sure that all the castles were in the hands of trusted men who would not rebel. William built his catles on a hill and in main towns.
The Normas strengthed their castles by building them out of stone walls around a motte and bailey. The enemies attacked the castles by shooting arrows over the wall. Another reason is that huge boulders were fired from machines like catapults and battering rams.
Normans defended their castles by firing arrows with fire. The strongest Norman castles were made of stone so that people carrying fire couldn't burn it as easily like wood.
The Domesday Book is a survey shwoing us how many people lived in England. The royal officials found out the information for the Domesday Book. They were sent out around the kingdom to find out about every village. The information that was recored in the Domesday Book was who owned the land before the Conquest and how much land was worth and how much of it qwas ploughland and other kinds of lands. They also wanted to find out how many people were free holders.
William wanted the Domesday Book written because he wanted to know exactly how much land each tenant held and what taxes he could expect. A historian would find this informaion useful in the Domesday Book because it had an account of a few towns. A historian would also find it useful becuase it says England's total population fairly accurately. It shows that England had 2 million people.
Spallinge - Spalding
Carucates - a measurement of land.
Plough - area of land worked by a team of 8 oxen.
Villages - People who lived in the village who were owned the the Lord of the Manor.
Small holder - A farmer who is a freeman not owned by the Lord of the Manor.
Exactions - Money charged by my lord of hiring out his ploughs or oxen.
The Medieval Village
The manor was an estate. The owner was called the lord or lady of the manor. The lord was usually given the manor by the baron or possibly wb the Kind if he was a baron and had been given a number of manors. The manor was given to the lord in return for loyalty and services to the baron of King.
The open field system of where the village arable land was altivated into three large open fields. These were divided into narrow strips which were shared our among the villagers. Each family's strips were scattered about all three fields, so good and bad soil was evenly distributed.
The commons were areas of rough pasture and waste land. Villagers grazed their cattle and sheep during warmer months. The woodland was where pigs were taken into the woods to be fatterned on across and beech nuts. Peasants also gathered wild fruits, berries and logs for fuel. This happens in Autumn. The meadow was where each villein had a share of the meadow. The grass was long to make nearly enough food for all the animals. However there was still not enough food so the animals that didn't have any food got killed.
The crop rotation system wokred by one field growing barley another was left fallow and the last contained wheat. After the first year field one would have wheat and so on. All of the fields got wheat, fallow and barley.
The judge of the manor court was the lord or his chief official, the steward. The crimes that people commited were caught grinding corn with a hand mill instead of paying to use the Lord's mill.
Magna Carta was presented to King John because the barons complained that John asked for too much money in taxation to fight wars against the French. The barons complained that the way King John decided how much money people should pay was unfair. People who were unable to pay were punished cruely. There was no way for them who were unfairly treated to complain. The Magna Carta was a charter which said what the king could and could not do.
Did King John accept the Magna Carta?
He attacked his seal to the Magna Carta in June 1215 a Rummymede on the River Thames. Civil War broke out again within weeks, John had given way too much power so he rejected Magna Carta.
What was the importance of Magna Carta?
The barons had forced King John to accpet Magna Carta to start with and to promise that his rule would not harm people in the future.
King John's son accepted Magna Carta, but not the part that allowed he barons to raise an army against the King.
The King had lost some of his power and soon the barons and others would ask to share in the goverment of the country with the King.
The Islamic Civilization
What did we learn from them?
We learn't about other countries from them. We learn't about different food which the Muslin merchants brought to Europe, new food including sugar and spice. We learn't about medicines. We learn't how useful it is to use pictures to recognise plants. We also learn't how to make paper. Also we learn't how to use wood block painting to make copies of books a lot quicker. We got our numbers from them. The words chemistry and alcohol came from latin and come from an arabic word. We learn't different medical remidies and procedures from them.
The Crusades 1095 - 1200
Crusades - A series of wars fought between Christians and Muslims to join control of Jerusalem.
Muhammed - The founder of the Muslin religion.
Why did people go on Crusade?
- Jerusalem had been captures by the Muslims.
- To repair the damage and to have revenge on the Muslims in Jerusalem.
- People who went on Crusade believed they would go to heaven.
- If the Crusades won the wars they would become rich.