History- renaissance


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Born in Brussels in 1514.

Professor at Padua in 1537.

His first book was based on the teachings of Galen,  in 1538.

It contained mistakes that Galen had made, such as that the sternum was made from 7 parts, whereas Versalius later discovered it contains 3 parts.

 Fabric of the Human Body,  in 1543.

Fabric of the Human Body was the first modern Anatomy textbook.

It's mass publication was made mossible by the new technology of Printing.

It contained 23 full page anatomical pictures, and another 180 illustrations of aspects of the body.

It corrected Galen's ideas.

Versalius championed the idea that anatomical work should be based on Dissection done by the surgical professors themselves.

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born in Kent, in 1578.

He studied at Cambridge and Padua.

He worked as a Doctor in London and a Lecturer on Anatomy.

died in 1657.

worte An Anatomical Account of the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals.

proved that blood flows around the body, is carried away from the heart by Arteries and to the heart via Veins.

He proved that the heart is a pump, and doesn't burn blood.

Came to this conclusion by dissecting, experimenting, observing and measuring.

He predicted the existance of Capillaries. After the development of the Microscope in the 1600's, they could be seen.

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born in 1510.

become a barber-surgeon at the Paris hospital of Hotel Dieu in 1536.

died in 1590.

Became a medical surgeon in the French Army.

Published works in 1545 and 1553 on the treatment of wounds

Becamse a surgeon to the French King in 1552.

At the time, Cauterisation was used to heal over wounds. Paré instead began to use a mixture of egg yolk, rose oil and turpentine.

Before Paré, Cauterisation was used to stop the loss of blood following amputations. using a red-hot iron to basically cook the flesh shut.

Paré chose to start using Ligatures-  tying up each individual artery and vien shut with tiny pieces of silk thread. , it did entail allowing infections deep into the body.

He published a collection of works entitled "Works on Surgery

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460BC - 370BC

Disease and Infection

  • The Hippocratic Oath - doctors are for patients NOT money
  • Encouraged doctors to look for natural causes
  • Believed in observation and recording
  • THE FOUR HUMOURS - Blood, Phlegm, Yellow Bile and Black Bile
  •  when balanced a person is healthy but when a person is sick the humours are unbalanced


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384BC - 322BC

Surgery and Anatomy

  • An interest in biology led him to dissect animals and plants

Although he did not dissect human bodies (due to religious reasons)  studies led him to suggest that the heart and brain are the most important organs in the body

  • Suggested that the heart provides the body's heat and the brain cools it down, noth organs working together to control the body.
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Born - AD129

Surgery and Anatomy

  • Wrote hundreds of books
  • Belief in the FOUR HUMOURS and OBSERVATION
  • Followed Hippocrates
  • Developed the idea of OPPOSITES - used to balance the humours which involved treating illnesses acociated with each season with specific treatments that focussed on opposites - hot with cold (e.g.) treated with heat
  • NERVOUS SYSTEM - he dissected a pig, as the pig squealed on the table Galen cut into its neck, finding the nerves.
  • Galen discovered that the brain, not the heart, controlled speach
  • and that the arteries not just the veins carried blood around the body - however he did make mistakes as he would often have to dissect the bodies of animals (in particular apes)
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