factors influencing developments in surgery

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  • factors influencing developments in surgery
    • science
      • pre-history
        • They understood that removing some bone from the skull could release pressure and often did this because for severe headaches or an injury to the skull.
      • Ancient Greece
        • In 250BC Herophilus’ dissections allowed him to find out that the brain controls the body.
          •  also there was a difference between arteries and nerves and he identified parts of the stomach such as the duodenum and the prostate
      • The Roman Empire
        • Opium was widely used as a sedative in surgery. Galen’s public experiment on a pig proved that it was the brain that controlled the body and not the heart
      • The Medical Renaissance
        • Through dissection of lots of human bodies, Vesalius found that Galen was wrong about some things for example that blood does not move through the septum of the heart.
          • William Harvey proves the heart works as a pump in the 1600s.
      • 1750?1900
        • Opposition to chloroform as it was a new and untested gas – they didn’t know how it would affect the bodies and minds of their patients.  Hannah Greener died after being given chloroform – surgeons were unsure of quantities
          • Acceptance of Germ Theory in the 1861 – hands were washed and clothes and instruments were sterilised. It took a long time to catch on though.  Lister discovers silk does not absorb carbolic acid and therefore cannot be sterilised. Lister uses catgut stitches to reduce the risk of infection as they dissolve after several days
      • The 20th Century
        • In 1895 Wilhelm Rontgen, a German scientist, was experimenting with Cathode rays which cause splashes of light in a glass tube. He had covered.
    • chance
      • Pre-History
        • sometimes the patient would survive trephining – there is evidence to show skulls that have healed after this operation
      • The Medical Renaissance
        • Pare ran out of boiling oil to treat wounds with so he started to use a mixture of egg yolks, oil of roses and turpentine (been used since Roman times). He found it more effective than the boiling oil as wounds healed better.
      • 1750-1900
        • Davey Discovers Laughing Gas (Nitrous Oxide) relieves the feeling of pain in 1799.  Liston then begun to use ether as an anaesthetic.
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      • The 20th Century
        • When soldiers were wounded, fragments of clothing would enter the wound and bacteria from this would cause Gas Gangrene. By trial and error on the massive numbers of casualties, surgeons arrived at the answer to this problem. They cut away infected tissue and soaked the wound with saline solution.

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