How he used finance to his advantage
Act of resumption - recover all crown lands 1486.
Had to give land his mom, Earl of Oxford and the land attained that had been annulled.
No male blood - uncle Jasper had land in Ireland & Wales which reverted back to the crown on his death.
Additional lands attained from Richard III and subjects at Bosworth (act of attainder). land under control of surveyors, recievers and auditors who specialised in maximising income.
Had to look and act like a powerful monarch. He spent shamelessly on images to promote himself and his dynasty.
Henry lent £138,000 to Phillip to finance his voyage to Spain -for the Country's security.
Consolidation of power
- Victory over Richard's forces at Bosworth, 22nd August 1485
- Henry had no discernible claim to the thone and he had many enemies. He descended through the female line represented by his mother, coming from John of Gaunts third wife and the illegitimate child.
- Main aims to ensure he kept his throne and to consolidate his power; dated reign from 21st/ rewarded key supporters/ deatined Elizabeth of York/ coronation before parliament met/ acts of attainder against yorkists/ tudor rose/ Prince Arthur
- Viscount Lovell and the Staffords rising against Henry at Easter in Yorkshire. S execyted, L escaped
- Simnel and the rebellion of the Earl of Lincoln, (Earl of Warwich impersonater) Mercaneries paid by Margaret of B sent to England.
- Battle of Stoke- Brought an end to the Wars of the Roses, making Henry's position safer/ developed bonds of good behaviour.
- Henry wanted long term dynastic stability and wanted people to believe that Tudors had a legitmate claim to the throne. He aimed to ensure his succession, ensure law and order by keeping control of nobility and improve the crown's financial position.
Opposition to religious change
- More- refused to swear an oath accepting that Mary was not an heir and did not want to go against the Pope.
- Aragonese faction-sympathetic towards Catherine of Aragon
Within the Clergy:
- Fisher- thought Henry's actions against Catherine were wrong and would not swear the oath accepting the divorce
- Elizabeth Barton-visions about the king's marriage and the disastrous consequences if he divorced saying he would be dead within the month
- Monks- refused to accept the divorce and would not sign a declaration against the Pope.
Within the Country:
- The Pilgrimage of Grace- rumours of tax increaseand monastries being closed, riots in Lincollnshire spread across the country with the King facing 40,000 'pilgrims' in arms.
Reform of Government
- King met regularly with his Royal Council of advisers. A more professional Privy council emerged with 20 members, trained lawyers.
- managed national finance in their private rooms in the palace the privy chamber. monarchs had significant day to day control. Augmentations- land&finance of former CC land / General surveyors-exmonastic land / first fruits and tenths-money previously to Pope / wards- estate minors.
- wolsey and cromwell represented this new breed of government, hard working and humble origins.
Crowns power and Parliament
- England was an empire and everyone owed total obedience to the King, ruling under God.
- england was an independant political body.
- royal authority was spread unevenly throughout the country
- Cromwell used P to legalise the break from Rome and to strengthen royal authority in outlying regions
- kings could make laws on proclamation
- they were an extension of noble politics and operated in partnership with the crown
- King in parliament- represented ultimate authority in E&W's and could be applied to any aspect of life
- any resistance of parliament was an early warning sign of trouble in implementing the king's wishes