Health - Healthy Living - Methods of Health Promotion

media campaigns 

legislation

fear arousal 

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  • Created by: sian
  • Created on: 14-04-11 14:30

Cowpe (1989)

Aim: to test the effectiveness of an advertising campaign which demonstrated aprocedure, provided information, challenged perceptionsabout lack of ability to cope and encouraged preventative actions

Method: quasi-experiment, campaign shown in 10 UK regional tv areas from 1976-84. analysis of chippan fires reported between 76-82. 2 quantitative surveys 76-83 Sample: people living in television areas

Procedure: 2 60sec commercials. real-time and slow-motion to heighten effect. number of reported chip-pan fires analysed for each area.

Key Results: net decline 7-25%. largest reduction during campaign-33%. if area received more than one channel, showed less impact. questionnaire increased awareness from 62-96%. people mentioning dangers increased from 12 to 28%

Conclusions: behaviour change seen most during and reduces as time passes after. less influenced if overexposed to it. confidence in data shown by change in awareness

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Cowpe (1989)

COGNITIVE/BEHAVIOURIST

Evaluation Points:

  • longitudinal vs. snapshot
  • determinism vs. free will

Method issues:

  • can't demonstrate casual relationships because IV not directly manipulated
  • socially desirable answers

contributes to our understanding of how people learn from media campaigns and how effective they can be

unrealistic - lacks ecological validity as many people may not have had tv's so may not have watched tv to see the commercials. ethnocentric - only tv areas in UK.

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Dannenberg (1993)

Aim: review the impact of passing a law requiring cycle helmet wearing in children 

Method: Natural experiment, laws passed in Maryland USA already           

Design: Independent design - each child naturally falling into groups        

Sample: children from 47 schools in Howard County. 2 control groups MC and BC. Aged 9-10, 12-13 & 14-15. MC campaign already. 7322 children questionnaires

Procedure: questionnaire - 4-point Likert scale about bicycle/helmet use. Parents asked to help- therefore consent obtained 

Key Results: Response 41-53% across ages & counties. HC (law) usage increased 11.4 to 35.7% > 8.4-12.6% MC and 6.7-11.1% BC. 87% in HC aware of law-38% wore helmet on last bike ride > 14% children who didn't know of law

Conclusions: HC law did show large increase in reported rate of cycle helmet wearing. Passing legislation has more effect than educational campaigns alone, EC are not necessarily effective in increasing health behaviours. 

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Dannenberg (1993)

BEHAVIOURIST/COGNITIVE

Evaluation Points:

  • longitudinal vs. snapshot
  • determinism vs. free will
  • individual vs. situational

Method Issues:

  • can't demonstrate casual relationships because IV not directly manipulated
  • socially desirable answers

contributes to our understanding of how people learn from legislation and how effective they can be and if people use them.

unrealistic - lacks ecological validity as many people may not have had tv's so may not have watched tv to see the commercials. ethnocentric - only 3 counties.

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Janis & Feshbeck (1953)

Aim: to investigate consequences on emotions and behaviour of fear appeals

Method: Lab exp., showed fear-arousing material, collected data by q'aire

Sample: US high school class, age 14-15. 4 groups inc. control group

Design: Independent design, group 1-strong fear appeal on dental hygiene. group 2-moderate fear appeal. group 3-minimal fear arousal. group 4- similar lecture on human eye

Procedure: Questionnaire 1 week before lecture -> 15-minute lecture -> questionnaire immediately after and one week later

Key Results: knowledge did not differ. Strong fear-interesting, easy to folllow, slides too unpleasant. Increased conformity of 8%. mod. 22%. min. 36%. con. 10%

Conclusions: min. fear most effective. relatively low fear arousal likely to be optimal level for promoting health

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Janis & Feshbeck (1953)

COGNITIVE/BEHAVIOURIST

Evaluation Points:

  • determinism vs. free will
  • reductionism vs. holism

Method issues:

  • lacks realism, may respond to experimenters cues
  • ungeneralisable - sample bias

useful applications as you can see the effects of different types of advertising. contributes to our understanding of how people react to the fearful photos

deterministic - ignores other complexities, pps may be more fearful of it than others. lacks ecological validity - lab experiment

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