health and social care anatomy and physiology

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oral cavity

-beginning of the digestive process=mastication (chewing) "mechanical digestion"

-chemical digestion, food mixes with saliva, a enzyme called amylase which breaks down carbohydrates

-saliva lubricates and moistems food

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Oesophagus

- Takes food into the stomach by peristalsis

-produces mucus to lubricate food

-carries vomit back into the mouth

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Stomach

- stores food

-mechanical digestion - churns food bt muscular contraction

-produces mucus to protect stomach lining from hydrochloric acid

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small intestine (bowl)

- where the majority of digestion takes place

-the production of some digestive enzymes

-absorbs the nutrience through villi

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Liver

- stores glycogen for balancing blood sugar levels

- produces bile

-detoxification

- filters blood

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gall bladder

- stores bile

- it contacts to release bile into the small intestine when fatty acids enter

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pancrease

- produces insulin to maintain blood glucose levels

- produces digestive enzymes

protease/trypsin= proteine

lipase=fats

pancreatic amylase= carbohydrates

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Large intestine

- absorbs water

- transportation of wast products

- produces some vitamins

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Summary of digestive enzymes

—  Summary of the actions of digestive enzymes:

—  Salivary Amylase (also known as ptaylin) produced by salivary glands breaks down starch into sugar.

—  Pepsin produced by Stomach gastric pit Breaks down protein  into peptides

—  Amylase produced by Pancreas breaks down starch into sugar  (Maltose)

—  Lipase produced by Pancreas breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol

—  Trypsin produced by Pancreas Breaks down Peptides into Amino acids,

—  Sucrase etc produced by Ileum Breaks down sucrose into glucose  and fructose

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Carbohydrate enzymes

—Sucrase which breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose —Maltase which breaks down maltose into glucose. —Lactase which breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose

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Absorption in small intestine

The villi (small finger like projections) with micro villi (hair like) together increase the intestinal absorptive surface area to around the area of a tennis court.

Villus capillaries collect amino acids and simple sugars which are taken up by the villi into the blood stream. Villus lacteals collect absorbed fatty acids.

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Coeliac Disease - causes

an autoimmune condition where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue

Coeliac disease isn't an allergy or intolerance to gluten

The immune system mistakes substances found inside gluten as a threat to the body and attacks them

This damages the surface of the small intestines (Villi), disrupting the body’s ability to absorb nutrients from food.

Exactly what causes the immune system to act in this way is still not entirely clear, although a combination of a person's genetic make-up and the environment appear to play a part

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Effects/symptoms

Can be mild or server

  • mild abdominal (stomach) pain
  • anemia (tiredness, breathlessness and an irregular heartbeat, caused by a lack of iron in the blood)
  • loss of appetite
  • Villi flattened= Mal-absorption =weight loss
  • vomiting (usually only affects children)
  • alopecia (loss of hair) usually only affects adults
  • Depression b vitamins
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Diagnosis

Screening for coeliac disease involves a two stage process:

  • Blood tests If coeliac disease antibodies are found in your blood, your GP will refer you for a biopsy of your gut. 
  • A (endoscopy) biopsy A biopsy can help confirm a diagnosis of coeliac disease. The gastroenterologist will pass a tiny biopsy tool through the endoscope to take samples of the lining of your small intestine. The sample will then be examined under a microscope for signs of coeliac disease. The endoscopy can show the villi and see if there damaged
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Treatment –

There is no cure for coeliac disease, but switching to a gluten-free diet should help control symptoms and prevent long term consequences of the disease.

-          Vaccinations (e.g. Flu) and supplements (vitamins and minerals) can also be used if a person has a low immune system

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Functions of the cardiovascular system

Heart – to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it is oxygenated   Vascular system – to ensure oxygenated blood is transported to where it is needed.

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blood vessels

Arteries – transport blood away from the heart Veins – transport blood towards the heart Capillaries – exchange surface for gases and nutrients

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Differences between arteries and veins

Direction of blood flow (towards/away) Pressure (high/low) Valves (presence/absence) Oxygenation of blood (oxygenated/deoxygenated) Pulse (yes/no) Thickness of walls (thick/thinner)

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Functions of blood

Transports gases Transports nutrients Removes wastes Fights infection Maintains body temperature Maintains homeostasis

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Blood structure and function

Fluid – plasma   Cells Red blood cells (erythrocytes White blood cells platelets

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Red blood cells (erythrocytes)

Contain haemoglobin which binds to oxygen in the lungs. Transports oxygen around the body and releases it to the tissues.

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platelets

Tiny disc shaped cells   Prevent excessive bleeding   By forming clots

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White blood cells (leukocytes)

Defend the body against bacteria, viruses and fungi.   3 main types, monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes.

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Monocyte

Defend the body against  BACTERIAL infections

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granulocytes

Fight bacterial and fungal infections rapidly increase in number Engulf and destroy bacteria Die forming pus ingested by monocytes

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lymphocytes

2 types called T cells and B cells. T cells kill virus infected cells and cancer cells. B cells make antibodies. Antibodies bind to pathogens and prevent them from doing damage to the body

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Functions of the cardiovascular system

  • Heart – to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it is oxygenated
  • Vascular system – to ensure oxygenated blood is transported to where it is needed.
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P, QRS, T

P wave – contraction of the atria   QRS waves - contraction of ventricles   T wave – relaxation of the ventricles

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Cardiac cycle

—Atrial systole – contraction of atria, 0.1 sec —Ventricular systole – contraction of ventricles, 0.3 sec —Complete cardiac diastole – relaxation of atria and ventricles, 0.4 sec

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Coronary artery disease

Plaques form in the walls of arteries The plaques split open Causes blood to clot (a thrombus) Thrombus blocks the artery

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Causes of artery disease

multifactorial Poor diet Alcohol and smoking Stress and lack of exercise hypertension Hereditary conditions

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Causes of a stroke

  • age you are more likely to have a stroke if you are over 65 years old, although about a quarter of strokes happen in younger people
  • family history if a close relative (parent, grandparent, brother or sister) has had a stroke, your risk is likely to be higher
  • ethnicity if you are south Asian, African or Caribbean, your risk of stroke is higher, partly because rates of diabetes and high blood pressure are higher in these groups
  • your medical history if you have previously had a stroke, TIA or heart attack, your risk of stroke is higher
  • Ischaemic strokes, the most common type of stroke, occur when blood clots block the flow of blood to the brain
  • Haemorrhagic strokes usually occur when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and bleeds into the brain
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Ischaemic strokes (clot) 80%

Causes

·         smoking – sticky blood and less elastic

high blood pressure (hypertension)

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Haemorrhagic strokes (bleed)

The main cause of haemorrhagic stroke is high blood pressure (hypertension), which can weaken the arteries in the brain and make them prone to split or rupture.

Things that increase the risk of high blood pressure include:

being overweight or obese

  • drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
  • smoking
  • a lack of exercise
  • stress, which may cause a temporary rise in blood pressure
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Symptoms

FAST: Face-Arms-Speech-Time.

  • Face the face may have dropped on one side, the person may not be able to smile or their mouth or eye may have drooped
  • Arms the person with suspected stroke may not be able to lift one or both arms and keep them there because of arm weakness or numbness
  • Speech their speech may be slurred or garbled, or the person may not be able to talk at all despite appearing to be awake. Loss of speech – Aphasia
  • Time it is time to dial 999 immediately if you see any of these signs or symptoms
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diagnosis

 Physical symptoms

Blood tests –cholesterol

Blood pressure

ECG

Ct and MRI scans

Swallow test

Heart and blood vessel tests (ultrasound (carotid Dopplers) and an echocardiogram)

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Treatment

  Thrombolysis (within 4 hours)

 –aspirin (anti platelet medication) Anticoagulants

– aspirin Surgery to remove blood from brain

  High blood pressure medicines

 – Anti hypertensive medication

– Ramipril ACE inhibitor Cholesterol-

STATINS, Simvastatin Physiotherapy,

OT, Speech and language specialist

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Functions of the musculo-skeletal system

Support Movement protection

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Structures

Muscles   Bones (skeleton)

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Skeletal muscles

Voluntary muscles   Attached to bones of the skeleton   Muscles can contract and relax   Bring about movement of the skeleton

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Actions of skeletal muscle

Extensors – open a joint Flexors – close a joint Adductors move a body part inwards Abductors move a body part outwards Levators raise a body part Depressors lower a body part Contrictor (sphincter) close an opening.

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Synovial joint

Synovial membrane - secretes synovial fluid Synovial fluid – lubricates the joint Cartilage – smooth surface to end of bones and cushions joints Tendons – joint muscles to bones Ligaments – join bone to bone

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Types of joint

Ball and socket - hips and shoulders Hinge – elbow and knee Pivot – head at the top of the spine Gliding/sliding – wrist and ankles Fixed – skull

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Nervous system

Its overall functions are to collect information about the body's external/internal states and transfer this information to the brain to analyse this information, and to send impulses out to initiate appropriate motor responses to meet the body's needs. 

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Neurons

The system is composed of specialized cells, termed nerve cells or neurons, that communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. 

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A neuron has three parts:

The cell body, containing the nucleus The dendrites, hair-like structures surrounding the cell body, which conduct incoming signals. The axon (or nerve fiber), which conduct outgoing signals emitted by the neuron. Axons are encased in a fat-like sheath, called myelin sheath, which acts like an insulator and, along with the Nodes of Ranvier, speeds impulse transmission.

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Major Divisions of the Nervous System

The nerves of the body are organized into two major systems:

the central nervous system (CNS), consisting of of the brain and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the vast network of spinal and cranial nerves linking the body to the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is subdivided into: the autonomic nervous system (involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessels, smooth and cardiac muscles), consisting of the sympathetic NS and  parasympathetic NS the somatic nervous system (voluntary control of skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscle).

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The PNS is subdivided into:

the autonomic nervous system (involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessels, smooth and cardiac muscles), consisting of the sympathetic NS and  parasympathetic NS

the somatic nervous system (voluntary control of skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscle).

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system is divided into two parts: the brain and the spinal cord. The spinal cord is about 43 cm long in adult women and 45 cm long in adult men and weighs about 35-40 grams. The vertebral column, the collection of bones (back bone) that houses the spinal cord, is about 70 cm long. Therefore, the spinal cord is much shorter than the vertebral column.

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Peripheral Nervous System

The peripheral nervous system is divided into two major parts: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

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Somatic Nervous System

The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibres that send sensory information to the central nervous system AND motor nerve fibres that project to skeletal muscle.

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Somatic Nervous System

The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibres that send sensory information to the central nervous system AND motor nerve fibres that project to skeletal muscle.

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Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system is divided into three parts: the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle of the viscera (internal organs) and glands

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Peripheral nervous system

In the peripheral nervous system, neurons can be functionally divided in three ways: Sensory (afferent) - carry information INTO the central nervous system from sense organs or motor (efferent) - carry information away from the central nervous system (for muscle control). Cranial - connects the brain with the periphery or spinal - connects the spinal cord with the periphery.

Somatic - connects the skin or muscle with the central nervous system or visceral - connects the internal organs with the central nervous system

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Brain functions

Thought Voluntary movement Language Reasoning Perception

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Corpus Callosum

The word "cortex" comes from the Latin word for "bark" (of a tree). This is because the cortex is a sheet of tissue that makes up the outer layer of the brain. The thickness of the cerebral cortex varies from 2 to 6 mm. The right and left sides of the cerebral cortex are connected by a thick band of nerve fibres called the "corpus callosum."

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Cerebellum

Functions: Movement Balance Posture

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cerebellum

The word "cerebellum" comes from the Latin word for "little brain." The cerebellum is located behind the brain stem. In some ways, the cerebellum is similar to the cerebral cortex: the cerebellum is divided into hemispheres and has a cortex that surrounds these hemispheres.

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Brain stem (medulla and pons)

Functions: Breathing Heart Rate Blood Pressure

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Brain Stem

The brain stem is a general term for the area of the brain between the thalamus and spinal cord. Structures within the brain stem include the medulla and  pons. Some of these areas are responsible for the most basic functions of life such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.

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Hypothalamus

Functions: Body Temperature Emotions – moods and motivation Hunger Thirst Sexual maturation Hormonal body processes

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Pituitary Gland

Functions: Hormonal body processes Physical maturation Growth (height and form) Sexual maturation Sexual functioning

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The Three Main Parts of the Brain

Brain anatomy recognizes three main parts of the brain: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. Each area is responsible for different brain functions, although there is often some overlap.

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Left Hemisphere

Sequential Analysis: systematic, logical interpretation of information. Interpretation and production of symbolic information: language, mathematics, abstraction and reasoning. Memory stored in a language format

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Right Hemisphere

Holistic Functioning: processing multi-sensory input simultaneously to provide "holistic" picture of one's environment. Visual spatial skills. Holistic functions such as dancing and gymnastics are coordinated by the right hemisphere. Memory is stored in auditory, visual and spatial modalities.

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Lobes

Four distinct lobes make up the cerebrum: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe. Each of these parts of the brain has different functions. Some of these functions may overlap: for instance, the frontal and temporal lobes are both important for language and speech.

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Frontal Lobe:

speech,

movement,

planning,

organising,

problem solving,

selective attention,

personality and a

variety of "higher cognitive functions" including behaviour and emotions.

 

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Temporal Lobe:

controls memory, personality, and language.  also allows us to distinguish smells and sounds. help in sorting new information and are believed to be responsible for short-term memory. Right Lobe - Mainly involved in visual memory (i.e., memory for pictures and faces). Left Lobe - Mainly involved in verbal memory (i.e., memory for words and names)

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Parietal Lobe:

process pain, pressure, and other physical sensations. identify objects. Parietal Lobe, Right - Damage to this area can cause visual-spatial deficits (e.g., the patient may have difficulty finding their way around new, or even familiar, places). Parietal Lobe, Left - Damage to this area may disrupt a patient's ability to understand spoken and/or written language.

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Occipital Lobe:

processes visual stimuli  allows the brain to process light and objects.  Not only is the occipital lobe mainly responsible for visual reception, it also contains association areas that help in the visual recognition of shapes and colors. Damage to this lobe can cause visual deficits.

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Nervous system

Its overall functions are to collect information about the body's external/internal states and transfer this information to the brain to analyse this information, and to send impulses out to initiate appropriate motor responses to meet the body's needs. 

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Neurons

The system is composed of specialized cells, termed nerve cells or neurons, that communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. 

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A neuron has three parts:

The cell body, containing the nucleus The dendrites, hair-like structures surrounding the cell body, which conduct incoming signals. The axon (or nerve fiber), which conduct outgoing signals emitted by the neuron. Axons are encased in a fat-like sheath, called myelin sheath, which acts like an insulator and, along with the Nodes of Ranvier, speeds impulse transmission.

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Major Divisions of the Nervous System

The nerves of the body are organized into two major systems:

the central nervous system (CNS), consisting of of the brain and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the vast network of spinal and cranial nerves linking the body to the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is subdivided into: the autonomic nervous system (involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessels, smooth and cardiac muscles), consisting of the sympathetic NS and  parasympathetic NS the somatic nervous system (voluntary control of skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscle).

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The PNS is subdivided into:

the autonomic nervous system (involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessels, smooth and cardiac muscles), consisting of the sympathetic NS and  parasympathetic NS the somatic nervous system (voluntary control of skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscle).

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system is divided into two parts: the brain and the spinal cord. The spinal cord is about 43 cm long in adult women and 45 cm long in adult men and weighs about 35-40 grams. The vertebral column, the collection of bones (back bone) that houses the spinal cord, is about 70 cm long. Therefore, the spinal cord is much shorter than the vertebral column.

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Peripheral Nervous System

The peripheral nervous system is divided into two major parts: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

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Somatic Nervous System

The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibres that send sensory information to the central nervous system AND motor nerve fibres that project to skeletal muscle.

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Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system is divided into three parts: the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle of the viscera (internal organs) and glands.

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Peripheral nervous system

In the peripheral nervous system, neurons can be functionally divided in three ways: Sensory (afferent) - carry information INTO the central nervous system from sense organs or motor (efferent) - carry information away from the central nervous system (for muscle control). Cranial - connects the brain with the periphery or spinal - connects the spinal cord with the periphery. Somatic - connects the skin or muscle with the central nervous system or visceral - connects the internal organs with the central nervous system.

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Structure

Larynx – voice box Trachea – windpipe Bronchi – left and right to each lobe of lung Bronchioles – smaller tubes leading to: Alveoli – small air sacs – site of gas exchange.

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Other structures- respiratory system

Pleural membranes – cover and protect lungs. Diaphragm – dome shaped muscle separates chest from abdomen. Intercostal muscles – contract and relax to expand the chest volume. Pulmonary arteries and veins – move blood through the lungs.

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Functions of the respiratory system

 

Inspiration/expiration (breathing!)   Gaseous exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

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Gas exchange is based on passive diffusion

  A large surface area for exchange of gases. A short distance for the gases to diffuse. Concentration gradients for the gases.

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Alveoli are:

Numerous (large surface area)

Thin walled (short distance)

Surrounded by many tiny capillaries (keeps a concentration gradient)

to speed up diffusion!

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Transport of gases

Oxygen binds to haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin.   Carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood plasma.

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Symptoms of asthma

Airways become inflamed and narrow Tightness in the chest Difficulty in breathing (out) Wheezing and breathlessness distress Anxiety (sweating, rapid heart beat) Cyanosis of lips and face

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Causes of asthma – genetic?

  Inherited in families   Linked to other conditions

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Causes of asthma – lifestyle?

  Overweight Exercise Low temperatures Chemicals in food

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Causes of asthma – pollutants?

Smoking House dust mites, cat/dog fur, pollen Aerosols Household cleaners and sprays Car fumes

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Asthma diagnosis

Peak flow meter spirometry Diagnostic imaging techniques Blood tests

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Peak flow

Measures maximum volume of air that can be blown during the 1st second of expiration (FEV1) Score based on age and height Best of 3 attempts Check during time of no symptoms Monitor decrease during asthma attack

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What does FEV1 tell you?

Helps to identify triggers. Identifies best medicines for each individual.   Decrease during attack indicates symptoms worsening – change medication? Stable value during attack indicates medication working.

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Diagnostic imaging techniques

Chest X ray to show change in structure of lungs or infection   CT/MRI scan to assess the condition of the lungs

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Blood tests

Arterial blood gas can show low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxia) or high levels of carbon dioxide (respiratory acidosis).   Used to identify infections Used to identify allergies by looking at antibody levels.

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Treatment of asthma

Preventers e.g. steroids Relievers e.g. Ventolin Antibiotics Avoidance of triggers

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Steroids (preventers)

  Reduce inflammation Reduce mucus production Reduce swelling and narrowing of airways Help reliever medicines to work better.

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Ventolin (reliever)

Relax muscles that constrict airways Help the flow of respiratory gases Balance the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide Use as an inhaler

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antibiotics

  Inhibits bacteria Treat secondary infections of bacteria No effect on viruses or fungi

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Avoid triggers

Dust mites Cat/dog hair Cold weather pollen

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Physical effects

Wheezing Coughing Shortness of breath Chest infections

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Intellectual effects

not understanding the overall causes Not understanding the disease process and its effects Not understanding the links between the causes and effects on themselves effects on work effects on education

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Emotional effects

bullying fear  or anxiety of condition / treatments low self esteem / self worth / self concept frustration due to constraints on lifestyle Emotional effects on family lack of empowerment

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Social effects

social stigma unable to have a normal social (sporting) life style unable to participate fully in education or working activities

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Structure of the renal system

Ureters – 25 – 30 cm long and 4-5mm in diameter. Transport urine from kidneys to bladder.  Enter the bladder at an angle to prevent reflux of urine. Urinary bladder – hollow muscular organ which can expand. Urinary sphincter keeps the urethra closed and prevents reflux of urine.

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Structure of the renal system

Prostate Only found in men! Surrounds the top of the urethra. Provides the fluid for *****. May get larger in older men and block the flow of urine.

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Structure of a kidney

Cortex – outer layer   Medulla – middle layer

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Structure of a kidney

Renal pelvis – connects the kidney to the upper end of the ureter.   Calyx – 2-3 major calyces divided into 8-14 minor calyces. Collection area for urine.

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Nephrons are the filtering structure in the kidney

Made from a filter (glomerulus) Bowman’s capsule Proximal tubule Loop of Henle Collecting duct

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•Glomerulus

– network of capillaries. Site of ultrafiltration. Fluid filtered out under pressure.

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Bowman’s capsule

  – a double walled chamber containing the glomerulus.

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Proximal tubule

– coiled tube, reabsorbs glucose

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Loop of Henle

– reabsorbs water

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Distal tubule

 – coiled tube, reabsorbs electrolytes

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Collecting duct

site of osmoregulation and leads to the calyx.

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Functions of the kidney (nephron

Urine production AND osmoregulation

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Urine production - ultrafiltration

High pressure in glomerulus forces fluid into the Bowman’s capsule = ultrafiltration. Small molecules such as water, glucose, electrolytes and urea (a poisonous substance made in the liver from unwanted amino acids), are filtered out of the blood and collect in the fluid in the Bowman’s capsule.

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Useful molecules are reabsorbed

All of the glucose in the proximal tubule Most of the water in the loop of Henle Most of the electrolytes in the distal tubule   Urea is not reabsorbed.

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osmoregulation

Maintaining the correct water and electrolyte content of the body and its fluids. Takes place in the collecting duct by changing their ability to reabsorb water from the fluid. Controlled by a hormone made in the brain.

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Renal dysfunction

Nephrotic syndrome leading to: Renal failure

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nephrotic syndrome

A syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms that occur together that indicate that the nephron is not working properly.

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causes - renal

Auto-immune disease. Thought to be triggered by a throat infection. Immune system attacks the glomerulus/Bowman’s capsule, damaging basement membrane (filter). Allows leakage of proteins.

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Main symptoms- nephrotic syndrome

Protein in the urine

Abnormal blood and urine values

Fluid retention/oedema/swelling

“Moon face”

Increased blood clotting times

Reduced immunity

Leads to renal failure

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Physiological effects of renal failure

Little or no glomerular filtration Little urine produced (50-250ml/day) Oedema due to salt and water retention Increased levels of urea and potassium in the blood Acidosis (inability to excrete acid substances) Cardiac arrest

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Physiological effects of renal failure

Fever/high temperature Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and hiccups caused by uraemia. High blood pressure Yellow/brown skin discoloration Neuropathy twitching Lack of concentration

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Physical effects- nephrotic syndrome

effects on mobility decreased immunity See previous slides for alternative physical effects

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Intellectual effects-nephrotic syndrome

not understanding the overall causes Not understanding the disease process and its effects Not understanding the links between the causes and effects on themselves effects on work effects on education

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Emotional effects-nephrotic syndrome

bullying fear of condition / treatments low self esteem / self worth / self concept frustration due to constraints on lifestyle reassesses own life and its effects on those close to them lack of empowerment

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Social effects-nephrotic syndrome

social stigma unable to have a normal social life style. unable to attend education or working activities without feeling inadequate

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Diagnosing renal dysfunctions

Urine tests using dipsticks for : Blood, glucose, protein   Blood tests: U and E’s (urea and electrolytes) eGFR Protein in the blood

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Diagnosing renal dysfunctions

Urine tests Blood tests Other tests: X ray CAT scans MRI scans uroscopy

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Diagnosing renal dysfunctions

Plain X rays X rays using contrast injections (urography or IVU) CAT scans to get a detailed “slice” MRI scans to get a detailed 3D picture. (Uses magnets, not x rays).   uroscopy/urethroscopy using a fibre optic instrument passed into the urethra.

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Symptoms of kidney failure

Òtiredness, Òincreasing need to urinate, especially at night,  Òitchy skin, Ònausea, Òerectile dysfunction,  Òshortness of breath,  Òswollen ankles, feet or hands (due to water retention), and  Òblood and/or protein in the urine. ÒIf kidney failure has been caused by a sudden injury, these symptoms can appear rapidly, and may progress quickly to seizures, coma and potentially death.

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functions

Ovary – produces ovum, stores ovum, secretes hormones (oestrogen and progesterone) Ovum (ova) – an egg. One is released each month to be fertilised by a sperm Fallopian tubes – transfer the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Site of fertilisation.

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functions

Uterus – accepts fertilised ovum, site where foetus develops, expands during pregnancy, contracts during birth Cervix – circular ring of muscle at the entrance to the ****** Vagina – path for menstrual blood to leave body, route for baby to leave uterus, produces lubrication during sexual activity

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The menstrual cycle

Controlled by changing the levels of the female hormones. Uterus lining thickens, then an ovum is released. If ovum is fertilised it implants in the uterus. If it is not fertilised, the lining of the uterus breaks down (menstruation).

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Female hormones

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) made by the pituitary gland in the brain. Oestrogen made by the ovaries LH (luteinising hormone) made by the pituitary gland. Progesterone made by the ovaries (FOLP = order of secretion)

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Stages of the menstrual cycle

Days 1-6  (menstrual phase)   Days 7-14 (follicular phase)   Days 15 – 28 (secretory phase)   roughly 28 days

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Menstrual phase (days 1-6)

  Lining (endometrium) of uterus is shed First day of bleeding is day 1 Can be painful Can be unusually heavy in some women

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Follicular phase (days 7-14)

An ovum grows and matures. Controlled by FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) produced by the pituitary gland. The uterus lining thickens. Controlled by oestrogen produced by the ovary.

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Comments

mia

Great little revision cards, much thanks! 

Sam Morran

A comprehensive set of notes.  Lots of detail that covers a lot of areas.

aishseedat

This is really helpful however, on the second card it says 'bt muscle contraction' what does bt mean?/

brenDONE with your ****

THIS IS THE SHITTTTT ZAAAHZAAAZAAAAAAAAHHH

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