Health

everything that is needed to know about your health including cholesterol and drugs

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Food and Health

Fibre - to keep the gut in good working order
Proteins - for growth and repair of tissue, provide energy
Carbohydrates - provide energy
Fats - provide energy, act as an energy store and insulation
Vitamins - Various functions, Vitamin C prevent scurvy
Minerals - Various functions, iron to make haemoglobin for healthy blood
Water - constant supply, to replace water lost through urinating, breathing, sweating - essential for life

A balanced diet includes all the main nutrients needed for health.

Malnutrition - when the body gets the wrong amount of the 7 essentials
Lack of vitamin C - scurvy
Lack of vitamin D - rickets
Lack of iron - anaemia - read meat/ spinach
Lack of iodine - goitre - thyroid gland swells up

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Metabolism

It is a measure of how quickly you burn calories/energy measure of how fast respiration

increase your metabolism - being active, over weight, prolonged exercise, when it's cold, if you have an infection, the more muscles the higher the metabolic rate

decrease your metabolism - as you get older, when you don't eat, when it is hot.

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Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a type of fat made by the liver.It is carried around the body via the bloodstream, attached to a protein. Some cholesterol is good (HDL) and some is bad cholesterol (LDL). LDL deposits fats in your arteries. This can lead to heart attacks and strokes. High cholesterol in the blood can be inherited but it can also be caused by a diet high in saturated fats. The amount of bad cholesterol can be reduced by eating polyunsaturated fats. HDL stops bad cholesterol from building up in your arteries. Drugs such as statins can be prescribed to lower the amount of cholesterol your liver produces.

HDL - High Density Lipoprotein (high protein, low fat)

LDL - Low Density Lipoprotein (low protein, high fat)

Saturated Fats - solid at room temperature, from animals

Unsaturated Fats - liquid at room temperature - plants and fish

Omega 3 - unsaturated fat that is good for heart/ oily fish

Statins - are drugs that lower cholesterol levels but only when a change in diet does not work.

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Salt

Leads to high blood pressure -- hardens arteries -- damages arteries -- puts heart under strain -- Increase chances of heart attack

Dietary Problems in the developed world
 - high blood pressure 
 - Narrowing of arteries
 - Breathing problems
 - Diabetes
 - Bowel Cancer
 - arthritis

Dietary Problems in the developing world
 - Lethargy
 - Muscle wastage
 - Rickets
 - Scurvy
 - Infections

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Drugs

Any Chemical that alters how the body works (illegal, prescribed painkillers, alcohol,  caffeine)

Synapses are gaps between neurones. When an impulse arrives at the synapse chemicals are released called transmitters which move across the gap and bind to receptor molecules on the next neurone. Drugs copy these transmitters and either
-- some of them speed up transmission of impulses, stimulants, caffeine, amphetamines
-- slow down transmissions of impulses - sedatives alcohol
-- block the transmissions of impulses - heroin, painkillers, analgesics
-- interfer with impulse transmissions - hallucinogens, LSD

Recreational drugs - drugs taken for pleasure not medical reasons
Legal recreational drugs - alcohol, tobacco, caffeine
illegal recreational drugs - class A, B, C

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Alcohol

short term effects
-- slows brain down
-- more flushed
-- relaxation
-- removes inhibitions
-- slows reactions
-- make agressive
-- drowsy
-- alcohol irritates stomach lining
-- unconscious

Long term effects
--  Liver damage
-- cirrhosis of the liver
-- brain damage

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Smoking

Smoking

Nicotine - This makes smoking addictive
Tar -  Causes the cancer, tar contains carciogens (chemicals that cause cancer)
Carbon Monoxide - It attaches to the red blood cells and stops them picking up oxygen - haemagolbine and complications with pregnancy

Diseases associated with smoking

Bronchitis - The cilia are paralised, the mucas still traps pathogens but because it can no longer be moved up and out of the lungs the pathogens reproduce causing infections
Emphysema - aveoli are damaged they stick together and the surface area is reduced, breathing is faster painful and not very affected

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Drug abuse

Drug abuse - Taking to many drugs, taking them for the wrong reasons
Tolerance - The body builds up a tolerance to the drug so it takes more drug to give the same effect
Dependent - Relying on the drug
Physical - Needs the drug in body to function - Heroin
Psychological - Survive without it but brain tells you, you need it  (nicotine)
addiction- cannot manage without the drug
withdrawal symptoms - these are problems experienced by addict when coming off the drug
Gateway drug - leads on to harder drugs (cannabis)

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