Investigating Global Tourism
Why is tourism increasing?
- growth of package holidays - cheap, foreign holidays
- devlopment of air travel and technological developments of air craft - more people able to fly as costs of flights are decreased.
- increasing wealth - more people have increasing amounts of disposable income to spend on holiday
- increased leisure time - employees have more paid holiday time than before
- increased transport facilities - better roads, increased car ownership and regional airports
- advertising - knowledge of other countries
- increasing range of trips on offer - different types of holidays
Importance of mass tourism
mass tourism: large numbers of people visiting the same area
eg: The Mediterranean was shown in the james bond movie and glamorised coastal areas
in recent years - number of peole from LEDC's taking holidays is rising.
21st Century Tourism
How can we book our holidays?
- travel agencies
- on the door tickets (airport or station)
Why do we prefer to book online? Why book at travel agencies?
- less biased Have specific help
- pick best deal Haggle the price
- more choice Hear opinions
- can research location thoroughly
- more efficient
Specialist Holidays : holidays based on a particular area, interest or activity
Fair Trade Tourism: makes sure the benefits go directly to those whose land, natural resources, work, knowledge and culture are being used
Event Tourism: travel based around specific events whether sporting, cultural or historical
Where does the world go on holiday?
many of the worlds most popular destinations:
- near the northern hemisphere
- involve short-haul journeys
the growth of specialist holidays in LEDC's may be due to:
- an increase in African Safaris
- tours of historal monuments in Peru
- health tourism trips to places like India due to the cheaper rates of dental care and operations
Different Environments, different opportunities
- the growth of specialist holidays helps to cater for very different sections of population
Benidorm Case Study
- 1925 - centre of Spains fishing industry. Had hotels along the beachfront
- 1950 - decline in tuna fishing so the town needed a new source of income
- 1967 - opening of Alicante airport
- 1970 - huge tourist boom from airport
- 1977 - town recieved 12 million visitors
- 2009 - has around 4 million visitors a year
- today it has over 1,000 restaurantes, 30 night clubs.
- town has to expand its tourist attractions: theme parks featuring marine wildlife and ancient mediterranean civilisations have been built to appeal to families.
Advantages of Tourism in an MEDC
Ibiza Case Study:
- high employement from clubs and bars
- famous people living = attraction
- maids, gardeners and chauffeurs helping famous people = local income
- clubs know for being good = tourist attraction
- locals find it hard to get jobs as foreigners come and take them
- origional culture dying out
- famous and rich living and 2nd homes = home prices rise = locals cant afford to stay
- beaches = crowded = animal habitats destroyed and animals killed
- cant cope with the amount of water needed
The good side of global travel
How can it help develop a more developed economy?
- the 32.6 million visitors who came to britain spent more than £16 billion
- British residents took almost 54 millions holidays of one night or more
- British people spend £4.8 billion on almost 50 million overnight trips
- increased contact between different countries and cultures.
- more interest in the culteral aspects of a country - museums, art galleries, castles ans stately homes.
- increased protection for the environment - tourist income helps to maintain these protected areas eg: National Parks
Regenerating cities and stopping Rual Decline
- titles like 'European City of Culture' attracts tourism = jobs for locals and money to build local infrastructure
Why are some countries more developed than others?
How is development measured?
- Gross National Income - a way of measuring the WEALTH of a country
- worked out by: all the income generated from the economic activity in a country is added together and then divided by the total number of people living in the country
- however, just because a country has a high GNI - does not mean its a comfortable place to live
Other Development Indicators
- Social Indicators - health, education, life expectancy, adult literacy, infant mortality, access to health care
- Economic Indicators - average income, number of mobile phones per 1,000, access to internet
- Environmental Indicators - access to clean water, sanitation systems, level of air pollution
The Millennium Development Goals
- investigations by the United Nations showed that living conditions for millions were unacceptably low.
- as a consequence - the UN decided that eight areas had to be improved by 2015.
Tourism in an LEDC
Phuket, Thailand Case Study:
Why do people want to go there?
- rent water jets
- rent a four wheel drive and go around the island
- natural beauty
- warm seaks, snorkelling and tropical paradise islands
- some of it is forested as well as the beaches
- buddhist temples and monks = religion
Tourism in an LEDC
Ways that tourist numbers make Phuket successful in the short term
- more jobs = local economy
- more money for government & country
- more people understand the culture
- improving housing = benefit to locals
- building on tourist attractions and places to stay
- more money to spend on advertising - more tourist = more income
- use money to protect indangered species
- money to spend locally on local economies and improving peoples lives
Long-Term probems with tourist success
- island becomes built up and crowded
- local people pushed out for tourists
- natural areas destroyed for building tourist attractions and homes
- marine life distrupted from jet skiis
- not enough resources for everyone
- culture may die out
- jobs given to overseas people = less money for locals
Can tourism reduce the development gap?
Development Gap: the difference between the rich and the poor.
The Downside of closing the gap through tourism?
- volatility: when something is apt to change, often very quickly.
- places sometimes over-rely on their tourist incomes - when fashion changes, they can go out of style = debt and unemployement
Increased tourism means:
- increased taxes for governments
- better educated population = job opps
- more money spent on infrastrucutre
- increased trade = indsutry and foreign investment
As money flows into the country from tourism:
- more people can work in tourism = money spend in local communities
- more money spent on local businesses - multiplier effect
- greater mixing of cultures, less tension between rich and poor, greater awareness
The Global travel challenge
- tourist industry incomes are low and jobs often seasonal
- working conditions may be poor
- tourist development use farmland = less food produced localy and they have to buy imported, expensive food
- less land available for building houses for locals = forced to move else where
- some areas - water and electricity resources are low due to sending them to holiday resorts first
- tourists can be insensitive to locals
- lack of respect for religious beliefs
The Global travel challenge
Las Vegas Case Study:
- dancing fountains, sinking priate shops, tropical landscaping, pools and water features
- consumes over 870 litres of water per person a day
- warning from environmentalists - water supplies may run out in the next 50 years
- 84% of visitors spent more than 3 hours gambling each day
- across Las Vegas' home state Nevada, 6% of adults are now addicted to gambling
- 10% of young people are at risk of developing gambling problems
How can Tourism create Conflict?
Honeypot: a place of attractive scenery or historic interest that attracts large numbers of visitors
Conflict in the Maldives
- toursits arent always respectful
- tourism makes up 3/4 of the country's income
- ocals may resent richer tourists
- money spent by visitors goes to package holidays instead of local communities
- farmers and fishermen usually sell to tourist industry instead of locals = pressure on food
- fishermen and tourists both want to use the reefs = comflict
- waste from tourism dumped close to homes of locals
Can tourism reduce the development gap?
The Decline of Kenya's Tourism industry Case Study
1930's - one of the first African countries to develop a tourist industry. Attraction = hunters & safari holidays
1963 - Independence - government made tourism a way to improve the economy. National Parks set up, investment in beach resorts.
2000 - Kenya's toursit industry declined. Terrorist attacks led to Western governments advertising their citizens not to go there.
2007 - after disputed presidential elections - more than 1,000 died in rioting. Tourist stayed away. Country lost an estimated £500 million
2014 - growth in local tourism - does not generate much income however
How can Tourism create Conflict?
The Lake District Case Study
Conflicts Between visitors and locals
- roads become congested - difficult for locals to go about their daily lives
- some towns' characters are almost completely changed by tourist shops
- visitors buy 2nd homes - increasing house prices = locals pushed out
- tourists may walk over farmers' land
Conflicts between visitors
- different people want different things. Peace and quiet, activities like water jets and motor boats
- increase in footpath erosion and mountain biking damage ruins peoples 'hillside walks'
- thousands of people in small towns - competition for parking spaces
Cutting down on the damage
- Nation Trust buys land in order to preserve it
- The British Trust for Conservation Volunteers carry out practical work by repairing footpaths
How does tourism affect the environment
Impacts on Coastal Resorts
- topsoil washed into rivers = settles on sea bed and kills reefs
- large areas of coastal forest cleared - make way for tourist hotels and facilities
- deforestation - provided ladn adn wood for homes of tourism workers
- human waste from resorts dumped into oceans
- tourism is using up water for tourist facilities
Impacts on Inland Resorts
- Yosemite National Park - 3 million visitors a year by car
- Widening and building of roads = less space for wildlife
- air pollution problems from cars
- noise and vehicle pollution - detracts the 'pristine nature'
- town of Aguas Caliente - unrestricted development in conflicted area = landslides from hotels replacing forests
- large amounts of litter surrounding mountains
- 500,000 pery year climb over ruins
- sewage and rubbish dumped in nearby river - a major source of water
Effect of climate change on tourism
- the Great Barrier Reef - earns $1.5 billion due to tourism
- due to increase in warmth - the tourist industry may become endangered
- snow on Australian alps supports lots of cross country and down hill skiing activities whcih may be in danger from melting
- Australian ski resorts may also be in threat of losing 44% of their tourists
- coral bleaching (linked to global warming) may affect the tourists
- health risks eg: exposure to harmful ultra-violet rays which cause skin cancer
Can tourism promote sustainable development?
How can tourism companies be more responsible?
- making sure the tourists know about the culture, politics and economy of the places they visit
- respecting local customs
- using local businesses which keep traditional values and preserve traditional culture
- buying goods from small businesses so money goes directly to the local economy
- using companies than minimise pollution, waste, energy consumption
Corporate Responsibility: how a company manages its impact on local communities and the environment
The growth of ecotourism - unique natural environments or wildlife habitats. National Parks, game reserves and coral reefs that are protected and carefully managed
Eco-tourism in an LEDC
Costa Rica Case Study
- conserve the natural environment whilst providing income for local communities
Natural Features Attracting tourists
- 2009 - more than 1.2 million tourists visited the national parks and protected wild reserves which covers 23.4% of the country's land area.
- favorable climate and beaches
- volcanoes, trekking, bird watching adn bunjee jumping in the rainforest
- Lapa Rios eco-lodge - own natural reserve, very expensive, waterfalls, bird watching, 0 impact on rainforest itself
- rainforests contains 5% of the worlds total species and plants
Human Features attracted tourists
- surfing, snorkelling, rafting
- museums, art galleries and theatres
- quality of medical services and health care system
- romantic honeymoon or wedding ceremony's
Eco-tourism in an MEDC
Sustainable Tourism in Turkey Case Study
Resort of Antalya switched from mass tourism to sustainable tourism. Changes were:
- the ministry of tourism has made a descision to not allow any more hotels to be built
- some waste water is cleaned and released back into nature
- low energy light bulbs used throughout the hotel
- all waste is composted
- research being done means ecologists can plan future development of the resort
- books and posters are being made to raise awareness of sustainable development
How can tourism be managed?
Management of Tourism: The Lake District Case Study
Problems caused by tourism in the Lake District: air pollution, traffic congestion, house prices rise ect...
Managment of The Lake District
- LDNPA (Lake District National Park Authority) works with the local tourist board, local councils to make sure everyone is happy.
They try to balance the needs by:
- introducing one way systems and restriciting car parking in some towns. Improving public transport
- employing park rangers to advise the public about conserving the environment
- insisting homes are built by local people
- encouraging voluntary groups to repair footpaths and replant trees
How can tourism be managed?
Community Tourism: tourism that has close contact with, and mainly benefits local communities
more tourists want to get to know the people of the country they are in instead of staying in large hotels.
Grassroots: run by local people to benefit local communities
Staying at home with Locals in Jamaica
- community toursim businesses have become more popular
- guests can stay in homes of people in rural areas to get to know the family
Community tourists benefit from:
- more interaction with the local people and culture
- closer connection with natural environment
- feeling that their money is going to local community
Benefits to the local community:
- sharing their culture
- recieving more money directly
The Great Barrier Reef
A tourism success story Case Study
- largest coral reef system in the world
- threatened by: overfishing, industrial pollution
- The Great Barrier Reef Authority manages the reef
- What do they do?
- - any organisation wanting to use the reef must have a full report on how the environment will be affected
- - everyone must have permits before diving, camping or fishing
- - 10 patrol boats check for illegal actiity
- The GBRMPA surveyed the reef to: map its biodiversity to show where different activities can take place. This was due to some parts needing more protection than others.
- the Zones include Green Zones, areas for tourists fishing
- What can be learn from the GBRMPA? - communication with locals, multi-layered approach, future planning
How is it in threat?
- increasing sea temps and rising sea levels - will affect the reef as well as local communities and national economy.