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  • Yalta Conference - agreed to split Germany into 4 zones
  • Potsdam Conference - agreed to enforcing the 4 D's (Denazification, decartelisation, demilitarisation and democratisation) and agreed to make Germany not pay through reparations
  • The Cold War emerged in 1945 which was between the USSR and USA and Britain due to Stalin setting up Communist governments in East Germany
  • Conflicting ideologies also played a large part in tensions with the Cold war - Stalin believed in a communist dictatorship and the Western allies believed in a Capitalist democracy
  • The Truman Doctrine was set up by Truman who was against communism, the aim of this was to contain communism and offer support to countries who feared a communist takeover
  • Marshall Aid 1947 was introduced by the USA to offer financial support to countries being taken over by Communism
  • The Berlin Blockade crisis 1948 was enforced by Stalin as a reaction to Marshall Aid, he believed that Marshall Aid was a betrayal of him; thus he blocked all access from East Berlin to West Berlin and vice versa (this lasted until 1949)
  • This led to the creation of Bizonia, the merger of the British and American zones in West Germany (this then led to Trizonia, when the French zone joined)
  • Finally, the introduction of a new currency in each of the zones, reinforced this partition between East and West Germany, the West introduced the Deutschmark and the East introduced the Ostmark
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Konrad Adenauer

  • Essentially achieved West German Independence
  • The Petersberger Agreement 1949 was introduced allowing the FRG to have better diplomatic relations with other countries
  • This was done by Adenauer joining the OEEC and ECSC 1951 which eventually led to joining the EU
  • The Allied High Commission was also abolished under the rule of Adenauer, giving the FRG more freedom
  • Under Adenauer, the FRG were allowed to join NATO in 1955 meaning that they were allowed to rearm, however the GDR reaction to this was to join the Warsaw Pact
  • He also joined the Common market, which led to better trade within the FRG
  • Marshall Aid 1947 meant that the economy was improving under Adenauer's rule
  • The Equalisation of the Burden Law was introduced by Adenauer to tax West German people in order to give money to families devestated from the War
  • However, part of the result of 'Adenauer's' work is down to Erhard
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West German Economic Miracle

  • There was a large labour supply, which was also very cheap
  • There was a social market economy, where the FRG was run partially by the state, but also partially by private ownership
  • The introduction of the Deutschmark led to a decrease in any inflation problems
  • The introduction of Marshall Aid 1947 meant that the West German economy had been improving
  • The Korean War was going on during this time, and this led to an increase in demand for German exports
  • Erhard was responsible for the economic merger between America and Britan, he also ended price controls to do with the Black market and finally he introduced the Investment Aid Law which was where the government invested 3.2 billion DM into West German's manufacturing businesses
  • Also, Adenauer's work with joining the ECSC, OEEC, and common market drastically improved trade for West Germany
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East and West German Developments 1949-1989

  • The GDR was run by the SED which dominated East Germany
  • The Stasi dominated East German life
  • There was the Youth Movement of FDJ which was dominant in the GDR
  • FRG - good economic growth, inherited the Ruhr and Saarland, expanding population, integrated into global economies and faced some opposition, e.g. from the Baader-Meinhof gang
  • GDR - centralised, communist dictatorship, main objective and work was in the agricultural sector, smaller and declining population, collectivisation was unpopular and it was labelled as a 'niche' society
  • Berlin Wall Crisis 1961 was introduced by Honecker who ordered the building of the wall to reinforce the separation between the two states, but mostly to stop East Germans fledding West, due to the quick decreasing population
  • 1961-1989 stable years in the GDR due to decentralisation and the Olympics
  • However, the Stasi did still control German life
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Foreign Policy 1949-1989

  • The Cold War 1945 meant that there were tensions in Germany and it led to the Berlin Blockade Crisis and Bi/Trizonia
  • The FRG joining NATO in 1955 allowed them to rearm, but this also led to the GDR doing a similar thing with the Warsaw Pact
  • The Berlin Wall 1961 was built due to Honecker and it led to a physical split between the East and West of Germany
  • Willy Brandt enforced the policy of Ostpolitik in 1971 which was enforced during a period of detente during the Cold War. 
  • Ostpolitik included part of the Basic Treaty in 1972 which meant that the GDR and FRG could have closer economic relations but would still recognise each other as separate states
  • Ostpolitik led to both the GDR and FRG joining the UN (United Nations) and signing the Helsinki Accords which protected Human Rights
  • However, in 1979 the period of detente came to an end and Germany became central to the 'Second Cold War'
  • But, the new USSR leader, Gorbachev lessoned these tensions
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Helmut Kohl and Reunification 1989-1991

  • Gorbachev (USSR leader) abandoned the Brezhnev Doctrine that claimed that the USSR had the right to intervene militarily to defend communism
  • The GDR had oppositional groups who started to protest against Communism
  • Many East Germans chose Hungary as a popular holiday destination, Hungary decided to let some of these holiday-settlers to escape Communism via Austria
  • This eventually led to Krenz (who replaced Honecker) opening the Berlin Wall 9th November
  • Kohl introduced the 10-Point-Plan when he was the Chancellor of the FRG to reunite Germany, this led to him becoming popular in both the FRG and GDR
  • However, to reunite Germany, Kohl needed the help from his allies: George Bush supported Kohl and wanted Germany to be reunited and Gorbachev decided to not intervene with other Communist countries
  • The Cold War ended in 1990
  • Reunification occured and Kohl became Chancellor of a united Germany 
  • Kohl introduced the Deutschmark nationally and joined NATO as a united Germany
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