geography theme 2 case studies

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 16-05-13 13:00

UK storm- weather affecting humans

key facts 

  • 1987
  • south east england most violent storm for over 100 years
  • £1 billion of damage 
  • power lines damaged and shares stopped 
  • deep depression came from bay of biscay in France 

East anglia 

  • oil rig workers lifted to saftey , coast gueards helped, lorries flipped on bridges

Hampshire, Dorset and sussex 

  • hit at 01:00, every major road cut off 
  • Isle of white shanklin pier washed away and man died from tree hitting car 

London and Kent 

  • hit at 03:00, over 1 million houses damaged, no trade, main roads closed, 94 mph gales
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Hurricane Katrina- responding to weather event

south east USA, 29th August 2005 

prep.

  • - sophisticated monitoring system- people were warned
  • 70%-80% new orleans evacuated 

effects 

  • SOCIAL- 1800+ people killed 
  • ECONOMICAL- $300 billion of damage 
  • ENVIRONMENTAL- sea flooding destroyed coastal habitats 

resonses 

  • SHORT-TERM- coastguards, police, fire service, army and volunteers offered help and temporay shelter at louisiana superdome 
  • LONG TERM- government $800 million rebuilding flood defences and $34 billion rebuilding schools and houses 
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Languard- threatened ecosystem

threats

  • sea flooding - ice caps melting - increased salt concentration on plants - coastal protection 
  • loss of area - factories and docks - removes ecosystem- SSI 
  • overgrazing - rabbit population - plants outcompete others - control rabbit numbers 
  • litter
  • fires 
  • footpath erosion 
  • dogs 
  • vehicles - visitors - small mammals die - litter bins and signs 
  • oil and chemical spills - industrial accidents - poisons enter food chain - gov. fines 
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Artesian Basin- water management and sources

facts

  • one of the largest underwater reservoirs in the world 
  • 22% of Australia 
  • 1.7 million square km 
  • 1915- flowing bores drilled throughout basin 

stages in formation 

  • ice age and tectonic movement cause area in dip to flood 
  • continuous flooding meant sediments left of permeable sandstone and impermeable mudstone

management 

  • struggle drilling for water - heat and capped bores to save water and pressure
  • great artesian basin sustainability initiative (GABSI) funded landowners to cap bores 
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river Mole and Lambourn and different behaviour

river mole / river lambourn 

  • hydrograph is spikey (lots of flooding)/ smoother (floods less ofter)
  • smaller channel (floods quicker)/ bigger channel (floods slower)
  • steep slope and little vegetation/ flatter land and lots of vegetation 
  • weald clay permeable (faster lag time- no infiltration)/ chalk permeable (infiltration)
  • urban area (gatwick, tarmack- impermeable)/ rural area (trees - permeable)
  • most rainfall december (145 mm 22 rain days)/ december (135mm 24 raindays)


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Lesotho Highlands- water management

good place for project :

  • place where lots of rivers meet and damn built where low pop.
  • steep slopes, little vegetation and no industry to be affected 

aims:

  • need for water and electricity in bigger areas
  • bigger growth = bigger needs 

viewpoints 

  • rich- safer water but water bills risen 
  • Gov. - acheived what set to do 
  • poor farmers- lost crops, lands and homes 

 short term/ long term 

  • lesotho- water shortages, loss of farmland, all water pumped to rest of SA/ developed country but 10 million lost homes
  • SA - water bills rise for damn and repairs/ % of people safe water 83 1990 to 87 2002 cost $8 billion 
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Sahel Africa- water deficit

background:

  • 9 african countries 
  • drought since 1968 1 million died and 50 million affected
  • 2/3 of people in rural areas depend upon agriculture for income 

climate

  • soil dry, no rain water, trees die and desert scrub grow, less roots to protect top soil

causes

  • increase in pop., grazing, drought, deforestation and wind erosion 
  • desertification - increase in pop. and in cattle 

solutions

  • trees planting schemes, small rock damns built, collect rainwater from roofs

 

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river landforms- river tees

upper course (young stage)-  altitude 600m

  • pennines hills - V shaped valley, 1200mm annual rainfall, load in solution and suspension 

middle course- altitude 350m

  • reservoir- industry HEP 
  • high force waterfall and gorge- limestone soft rock and winstone hard igneous rock 
  • meanders (Yarm)- through fertile farm pasture 

lower course (old stage)- 

  • oxbow lakes (Yarm and Stockton)
  • reclaimed land and flood plains as load gets dropped 
  • warmer climate and fertile soil 
  • estuary (Middlesborough)- near docks export and imports oil, petrochemicals, iron and steel 
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