Geography - Population

Revision for the whole Population topic on handy cards.

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  • Created by: FiFi
  • Created on: 20-04-11 11:42

Key Words

Birth Rate

  • The number of live births per 100 people, per year

Death Rate

  • The number of deaths per 100 people, per year

Natural Change

  • The difference between birth rate and death rate

LEDC - Less Economically Developed Country. E.G. Kenya

MEDC - More Economically Developed Country. E.G. UK

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World Population Growth

 Grows gradually at first (1750-1950)                                       

Then grows rapidly (1950-2050)

Reaches 10 billion (2040)

Starts to steady out (2050)

Economically developing countries pop. grows


Doubled from 3 billion in 1950 to 6 billion in 2000

MEDC's start to decline from 2050 onwards


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Demographic Transition Model

Stage 1 - UK, pre 1750, small tribes (now)

BR and DR high, fluctuating. No Birth control (rapid pop. growth). Poor sanitation (rapid pop. decrease) Pop. = low.

Stage 2 - Afganistan

DR fall = improved sanitation. BR high = no Contraception. Pop. grows = youthful Pop.

Stage 3 - Brazil, Kenya

BR falls = contraception available. DR falls = better sanitation. Pop. growth = slow.

Stage 4 - UK NOW!

BR = low (contraception available). DR = low (long LE). Ageing pop. Pop. = high, stable.

Stage 5 - Japan, Germany

BR below DR. Fertility rate = less than 2 (sub replacement). Pop = in decline

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Factors affecting Birth and Death rates

Birth Rates

  • Access to birth control
  • Wealth of parents
  • Life choices
  • Women having a good education and job
  • Population policies

Death Rates

  • Access to medicine/clean water
  • Less infant mortality
  • Better food
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LEDC and MEDC Pyramids


  • Triangular shape with a wide base
  • Fall at each age group = high infant mortality
  • Youthful pop. structure
  • Low life expectancy  - less elderly people


  • Nearly rectangular shape
  • Narrow base = low birth rate
  • High LE = more elderly
  • Stages even = low death rate
  • Ageing pop. structure
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Migration Key Words

Migration - The movement of people to another place to live or work.

Voluntary - People choose to move

Forced - People have to move

Internal - Movement within a country

International - Movement between countries

Immigrant - Someone entering a new country

Emmigrant -  Someone leaving a country

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China's One Child Policy

Introduced because:

  • China had a large population (1 billion+) that grew (tripled since 1947)
  • China had a high fertility rate (6 children per woman)
  • A large famine was forecast for China


  • Allowed one successful pregnancy (Ethnic Minorities not included)
  • In rural areas, a 2nd child was allowed if the first was female
  • If a 2nd child is born, it cannot be a Chinese Citizen
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Push and Pull Factors

Push Factors - something that forces someone away from a place. They are negative.


  • Fleeing from conflict
  • Fleeing to avoid persecution
  • Fleeing from natural disaster. E.g. flooding, volcano erupting etc.

Pull Factors - something that attracts a person to another place. They are positive.


  • Moving to be closer to family/friends
  • moving for better education, health care, career or weather
  • Moving to somewhere with a lower crime rate
  • Moving somwhere with a more stable political system
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Ageing Populations


  • Low death rate caused by a high life expectancy
  • low fertility rates caused by a low birth rate


  • Governments spend more on pensions/carehomes. (not education)
  • Retirement age increases
  • Long waiting lists for operations
  • Elderly cannot afford housing


  • Make child care cheaper - more people are encouraged to have children
  • Encourage immigrants in the 20+ age group
  • Raise retirement age by 2 years
  • Have Creches at work, no child care needed
  • Encourage private pensions (govern. don't pay)
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Case Study - Poland to the UK)

Push Factors

  • Wages in Poland are low
  • Unemployment is high (20%)

Pull Factors

  • Higher wages in UK
  • Low unemployment - many more jobs
  • Education provided

Advantages for UK

  • More income
  • Skilled jobs taken
  • Less ageing population
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Case Study - Poland to UK

Advantages for Poland

  • Reduce job Competition
  • Workers send money back home

Disadvantages for UK

  • Racial tension/language barriers
  • Pressure on education facilities
  • Less jobs when youths need them

Disadvantages for Poland

  • Ageing population
  • No skilled workers
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China's One Child Policy


  • No famine
  • Population growth was more sustainable


  • Gender imbalance (more girls than boys)
  • Harsh fines if policy was broken and forced abortions/sterilisations
  • No free health care/education for the 2nd child
  • Stopped 400 million births
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Ammar wrote:


May I ask why???


isn't it per 1000 people?

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