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Urban Growth: towns and cities are expanding covering a greater area of land

urbanisation: increasing population of people living in towns and cities

rural depopulation; more people moving to cities, working class coming to find work

millionaire cities: over 1 million people

mega cities: over 10 million people

Puch factors: drought, famine, natural disasters, poor living conditions, poor education and healthcare, agricultural change, unemployment, war and civil conflict

Pull factors: employment, higher incomes, education, healthcare, urban way of life, protection from conflict

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Push factors from Rural Areas:

  • rapid population growth : more people trying to farm putting pressure on the countryside
  • land ownership isnt even
  • modernization of agriculture - machines mean fewer workers are needed
  • flooding displaces people and ruins the landscape
  • drought
  • conflict
  • land regradation
  • provision of healthcare and education

urban area

people move into the area hoping to find a better way of life but it is crowded, housesmade out of anything they find, squatter settlements grow, come together, amke small schools , bars, shops a;; in the city on road sides.

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problems in LEDC cities:

  • electricity supplies variable
  • traffic
  • need for shelter
  • pollution
  • poverty
  • sewerage systems
  • access to clean drinking water
  • over crowding
  • rubbish collection
  • education
  • healthcare
  • employment
  • drugs
  • gangas
  • violence
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Rural - Urban Migration could be reduced if:

  • land was shared equally
  • natural hazards can be managed - water tanks for drought
  • urban areas support rural farmers
  • equiptments and tips are given so that they can farm better and make money

Self Help Scheme;

People work together to build a house. governements provide money and materials, healthcare, water and electricity

  • water tank
  • electricity
  • roads
  • sewer
  • toilet
  • sink
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Curitiba Brazil

  • cheap transport
  • recycling scheme
  • access to clean water
  • 24hr healthcare
  • compulsary education
  • street children fed
  • industry = jobs

Cairo Egypt

Population live on rooftops, variable electricity

water supplies limited, bad sewerage, rubbish cart collection - variable- dumped, traffic, air pollution new housing is in constant demand

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