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Recording population change:

  • Birth Rate
  • Death Rate
  • Infant Mortality rate
  • Total Fertility rate
  • life expectancy
  • rate of natural increase
  • migration
  • popultation pyramid

Data can be collected on a census, the head of household records this however there are ways people get left out:

  • people moving house may get left out
  • people who cant read or write
  • births and deaths may not be registered
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Factors affecting popultion change:

  • religions and cultures may encourage women to have more children
  • poverty increases death and shortens life expectancy
  • higher levels of education and healthcare mean lower birth rate
  • greater level of development the more slowly a population grows
  • governements can influence where people live and the number of children they have
  • people migrate for a better quality of life
  • Most wars and conflicts
  • disease kills alot of people

increase: religion, government, healthcare, wealth, immigration, development, culture religion

decrease: wealth, education, healthcare, culture, poverty, war, famine, disaster

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Problems of growth:

  • clean water, food, firewood are all in short supply
  • rural urban migration = too many people in the cities
  • pollution, congestion, poverty and unemployment

Costs of an ageing population:

  • more healthcare
  • more housing
  • elderly leisure activities
  • more transport

Food isn't evenly distributed all over the world. In many parts of Africa women have to walk long distances to get clean water. Hardwood and minerals are being exhausted at a fast rate

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What will afect predictions of growth?

  • HIV/AIDS has a huge effect especially in Africa
  • Religion and education.
  • Wealth and prosperity influence the number of children you have
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China one Child policy:

  • to stop the experience in the future of not having enough food to feed the population
  • healthcare and benefits come with one child
  • taken away if you have more than one child
  • more boys than girls


  • average 8 children each
  • increased life expectancy, low inant mortality = higher population
  • lots of children for income, care for parents in old age, lack of education and contraceptives
  • government said 4 children per family
  • family planning
  • HIV AIDS had a huge effect as the population began decreasing

Japan = elderly population

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