Geography Case Studies; Unit 1

GCSE Geography Revision cards on Unit 1 Case Studies. WJEC, SPEC B, perfect for exam tomorrow! Good luck :)

I've made some unit 2 case studies too, so check them out if you like!

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  • Created by: Rhiannon
  • Created on: 10-06-11 22:11

Access To Housing in an MEDC

For a named are you have studied describe and explain how access to housing varies between different groups of people/ explain the effects on different groups of people


  • Liverpool, North West England
  • CBD (Liverpool City Centre)
  • Inner City (Smithdown Road)
  • Suburbs (Mossley Hill, Allerton)
  • Urban-Rural Fringe (Halewood)

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CBD - What kind of housing and features?

  • Many services; shops, amenities and social activities
  • Housing quite modern yet compact
  • No garden space
  • High Transport Links (Trains, Bus etc...)
  • Near to Universities and Work Opportunities
  • Not overly expensive place to live (e.g less travel)

CBD - Who lives there?

  • Young Professionals
  • Students
  • Couples with no dependency (e.g kids)
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Inner City - What kind of housing and features?

  • Bit run down
  • Compact terraced housing and tower block housing
  • Low income living
  • Cheap, basic housing
  • Loud living facilities
  • Less busy than CBD, yet still near to the CBD
  • High crime rates
  • Derelict housing common
  • Local shops (e.g 7/11 shops and supermarkets)

Inner City - Who lives there?

  • High Population
  • Lower Income Families
  • Elderly (fixed income)
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Suburbs - What housing and features?

  • Semi-Detached, larger houses
  • Bay fronted housing
  • Local shopping parades
  • Higher House Prices
  • Still near CBD
  • Seen as a 'nicer place to live' than the inner city

Suburbs - Who lives there?

  • Higher Income Families
  • Dual Income Families
  • Working Class Families
  • Elderly (fixed income)
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Urban-Rural Fringe - What housing and features?

  • Border of Countryside and the city
  • Often very good transport links and A roads and motorways nearby
  • Large Housing and Large Gardens
  • Detached, often modern homes 
  • Shopping facilities
  • Most expensive place to live of the 4
  • Can be hard to travel if you do not own a car

Urban-Rural Fringe - Who lives there?

  • Commuters
  • High/ Dual Income Families
  • First Time Buyers
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Access to Services in an MEDC

For a named are you have studied describe and explain how access to services varies between different groups of people/ effects different groups of people


  • Liverpool, North West England
  • CBD (Liverpool City Centre)
  • Inner City (Smithdown Road)
  • Suburbs (Mossley Hill, Allerton)
  • Urban-Rural Fringe (Halewood)
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CBD - What kind of services?

  • Brilliant Public transport links (trains stations, bus links, taxis etc...)
  • Accessible for commuters and students
  • Plenty of job opportunities
  • Many apartments
  • (Busy area)
  • Links across the Mersey river so good for tourists and business people
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Inner City - What kind of services?

  • Infrequent transport links
  • Supermarkets and 7/11 shops
  • Commuters don't tend to live here due to infrequent transport links and tend to work in Inner City itself, so busy area
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Suburbs - What kind of Services?

  • Average Transport links
  • Fair way to travel compared to Inner city
  • Frequent Bus links yet no train links in Allerton
  • Difficult place for Students and Commuters to live
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Urban-Rural Fringe - What kind of services?

  • Close to A-Roads and Motorways
  • Easier to make your own way to CBD (commute)
  • Infrequent, expensive bus links due to distance
  • Can take a long time to reach CBD on bus
  • Elderly and Families who do not have to travel by public transport tend to live here
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A Planning Issue in a Town or City

For a named area you have studied describe and explain how changes to the environment have been planned and explain how these changes have affected groups of people


  • Lower Lea Valley, Newham
  • London 2012 Olympics
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Describe the changes:

  • Lea Valley converted into one of the largest urban parks in Europe
  • River Systems and waterways restored and improved
  • Olympic park being used for recreation after Olympics
  • Pylons removed (200km of electricity cables are now underground
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Explain; Environmental;

  • Regenerate polluted Brownfield sites in Newham
  • Attract tourists and families (links to both social and economic)
  • Encourage teenagers and children to look after surroundings
  • Attract wildlife
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Explain; Social

  • Local residents (Business owners, Factory owners and families) being forced to move to provided accommodation
  • Trouble getting to work
  • If you do not move, you may be evicted
  • The regeneration should decrease the 7.8% of people unemployed in Newham
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Explain; Economic

  • Benefit as both a borough and London itself
  • Many temporary and full-time jobs created
  • A lot of money brought through from Olympics = Increase in GDP
  • May affect businesses and families individually due to social factors, which could mean a decrease in the already low average family income
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A Rural area under conflict

For a named are under pressure from many visitors: name the area, describe what attracts people to that area and explain the conflicts the visitors may cause


  • Peak District National Park, Central England
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Describe the attraction;

  • Visitors Centre has been planned to be built
  • The National Park is accessible from all directions (Central England)
  • Honey-Pot Site
  • Villages around the area
  • Walks for visitors to go on
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Describe the Conflicts;

  • Environmentalists say although it raises awareness, it may destroy the environment (e.g soil erosion from ramblers; higher risk of air pollution from cars; ecosystems ruined due to litter dropping)
  • Disruptive to residents; congestion, eye sore (the visitors centre), space wasting, traffic means danger to cyclists, privacy issues
  • Positively, it will bring more revenue to the area
  • Educating and encourages awareness about nature and geography

(Negative views tend to be environmental and social. Positive are economic and social. This goes against the fact it is trying to raise awareness about nature)

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Urban-Rural Migration

For a names area you have studied describe the factors that caused people to leave the urban area and explain how it affected the rural area they moved to.


  • Urban area; Norwich
  • Rural Area; Thurston, Suffolk
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Describe the pull factors;

  • Larger Housing (Larger Gardens)
  • Lower Crime Rates
  • Quiet and Peaceful; quieter roads
  • Less pollution; a cleaner environment
  • Space for new businesses that will do well in small communities
  • People are able to work at home nowadays
  • Thurston is a commuter village

Describe the push factors;

  • Urban decay (the vicious cycle)
  • Better jobs; working at home, means higher income families move
  • Urban has a decline in higher income families, meaning tax have to be increased, yet low income workers pay this.
  • Housing prices go down
  • Area becomes run down; crime, pollution, litter
  • Nobody wants to move to Urban areas
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Affects on rural area;

  • Counter-Urbanisation means rural areas become over-populated
  • Lack of community spirit
  • Air pollution increases
  • Suburbanisation/ Urban sprawl increases, meaning rural areas because slowly more urban
  • Urban decay may start to appear in the future in Thurston
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Rural-out migration in a Less Economically Develop

For a named area you have studied in an LEDC describe the factors that caused people to migrate and explain how the area they migrated away from was affected.


  • Rural area; Bahia, Brazil, South America
  • Urban area; Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, South America
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Describe the pull factors;

  • The ''bright lights'' of Rio attract people; gives the impression of a better life
  • More work opportunities, meaning more money
  • Better Quality of life (health, happiness) and Standard of living (money) 
  • Better future, better education

Describe the push factors;

  • Lack of education
  • Lack of employment opportunities
  • Poor health, very little facilities and services (water, hospitals)
  • Any water people do have is dirty
  • Poor, unsustainable housing
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Affects on rural area;

  • Rural areas become even more run down for those who still live there
  • Elderly cannot move, so often die
  • More people move, meaning less use for those in the the Rural areas

*What is Rio really like? (Extra)

  • Expectations are high yet most end up living in illegal, unsustainable, spontaneous favelas
  • Still poor, extremely cramped living conditions 
  • Quality of life may be increased slightly, but still very poor
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Housing Provision in a city in a LEDC

For a named area you have studied describe the housing provision in that area and explain how the housing affects the lives of the people who live there.


  • Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, South America 
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Describe the Housing provision:

  • Centre of Rio = High cost housing such as luxury flats and detached housing
  • Further out is the Perifera = older informal housing, poorer quality
  • Further out again are the Favelas = recent informal housing, very poor quality
  • Both the Perifera and Favelas are spontaneous, often illegal, crowded


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How does it affect people?

Centre of Rio (High Cost Housing):

  • Higher income families and commuters live here (Middle Classes)
  • Better amenities, education and higher security
  • More job opportunities
  • Less crowded, good infrastructure
  • Congested roads more likely
  • Good Quality of life and standard of living in general
  • Less of a sense of community
  • Lower crime rates
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looks very useful, its a shame i am sitting OCR.


Thank you :)

Awh, that's a shame, is finding resources harder, or are they still easy to find?

Good luck!


thankyou! been really useful should help with exam tomoro :)


I'm glad! Good luck! :D

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