Geography Case Studies



British American Tobacco

  •  One of the biggest cigarette providers selling 667 billion cigarettes in 2014                        
  •  It sells its products in many countries, mainly targeting African, Indian & Indonesian markets 
  •  It uses controversial advertising techniques to sell its products and there are strong accusations  that it attempts to advertise and sell its products to young children in an attempt to get them  addicted to tobacco.
  •  One of the alleged techniques is to sell single stick cigarettes in less developed countries, a  practice which is frowned upon and illegal in many countries.
  •  These single stick cigarettes are far more accessible to young children with limited incomes who  couldn’t afford a full pack of cigarettes and are an effective way of getting people hooked while  they’re young.
  •  They also illegally advertise their brand through partnerships with shops and compettions        (Mauritiaus free pots for single sticks, posters and shops with the company colours)
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BAT Advantages

  • Tobacco farming provides a very large source of income for the country . Tobacco farming accounts for 2/3 of Malawi’s yearly income the people get 8x more than from other crops.
  • Tobacco transnational corporations provide the people of Malawi with employment, stopping them from being forced to turn to crime.
  • In Malawi, 75% of the population is dependent on tobacco farming in some way. The tobacco industry provides 1.7 million people with direct jobs and 5 million with indirect jobs relating to the tobacco industry in Malawi.
  • Tobacco transnational corporations provide employment for women in many less developed countries which is very unusual and good progress towards developing women’s rights.
  • Tobacco transnational corporations will often have ‘charitable givings’ where they provide clean water or health care to people in less developed countries. In Malawi 40,000 people were provided with clean water
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BAT Disadvantages

  • Children are often employed on tobacco farms despite this being illegal in Malawi and many other countries. This is unfair on the child as it takes them out of their education and prevents them from attaining better careers.
  • Workers on the farm often die from tobacco poisoning including children.
  • Due to the potential profitability of tobacco farming, many farmers choose to grow tobacco instead of food leading to famines within countries were tobacco farming is popular.
  • Tobacco farming acts as propaganda and increases the likelihood of people smoking in a country.
  • The selling of single sticks attract children lowering their life expectancy or HLE
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BAT Breaches of the Law

  • Children can buy single sticks, single cigarettes for 4 rupees (7p) each Mauritiaus
  • Bat gives free pots to shopkeepers in order to keep single sticks therefore they are promoting the use of single sticks and therefore smoking by children.
  • BAT run campaigns to target children for example, they hold Benson and Hedges music festivals
  • There are no age checks at the doors. It is also televised
  • BAT have promoted Pall Mall and Embassy music events where they promote a competition where the entrant buys a packet of cigarettes, they write their name on the back of the packet and then enter it into a draw to win a prize
  • There are also competitions advertised on leafleats outside of shops with these shops painted in the compny colours by the company 
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  • GlaxoSmithKline is the third largest pharmaceutical company in the world.
  • Founded in London in 2000 the company has grown substantially and offers products for many diseases, especially diseases common to MEDCs such as diabetes and cancer.
  • They also have treatments for viral diseases, mental health diseases and GlaxoSmithKline offers several over the counter products such as indigestion tablets
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GlaxoSmithKleine Disadvantages

  • Since 2008, GlaxoSmithKline has been running trials of a vaccine against malaria, which would bring unprecedented benefits to most of the world, especially less developed countries.
  • However the drug could end up being prohibitively expensive for less developed countries given its 25 years development period
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Research and Development

  • GlaxoSmithKline’s R&D department compiles research in to treating and preventing diseases.
  • It mostly takes place in economically developed countries such as the UK and in the US as of the level of educated people available to work in the quaternary industry
  • Research takes around 12-15 years and costs over £500,000,000 to discover and develop a new medicine or vaccine. 
  • They are the only pharmaceutical company to prioritize the development and research of medicines and vaccines for the World Health Organization’s three priority diseases: Malaria, HIV and tuberculosis
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Distribution and Sales

  • GSK make a large profit from drug sales but also donates to poorer countries for free e.g 750 million Albendazole tablets to treat 130 million people
  • But as a recent sudy shows most of the drugs that they donate are past their used by date as a way to avoid the cost of destrying them
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  • This infectious disease causes nausea vomiting and diarrhea some of many symptoms
  • The diseaese has mainly affected areas of sub-sahran africa with countries such as Sierra Leone and Liberia most badly affected 
  • The disesase is spread through bodily fluids and attacks major organs
  • It's origin is from bats first apperaed in1976 DR Congo the virus is then spread to animals that people eat as bush meat
  • There is no cure for the virus
  • The spread of ebola can come from the movement of meat across borders and the movemnet of people from country to country
  • The spread of the virus has never been so wide due to globalisation
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Effects of Ebola

  • Over 9000 deaths and over 20,000 cases 
  • Tourist industry in west Africa has massively suffered
  • Of 590 monthly flights scheduled to Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone 216 have been cancelled
  • It's predicted that there will be $7.4 billion in lost GDP for 2014 and $25.2 billion in 2015
  • Agricultural production has been reduced and accounts for 57% of sierra leone economy
  • Has left countries dependant on aid
  • The spread of ebola in west african countries has also been increased due to burial rituals that take place
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Ebola Responses

  • Over 200 million dollars given in aid by America
  • Doctors sent from other countries with China sending 200 doctors to help with the lack of medical expertise
  • Hospitals such as JFK hospital have been setup up to treat ebola patients
  • Research has been started to find a cure 
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  • In the 2011 census the population of Rusholme was 13,643 and is made up of approximately 47% females and 53% males.
  • The average age of people in Rusholme is 30, while the median age is lower at 24
  • 56.4% of people living in Rusholme were born in England with the second most prominent for country of birth Pakistan at 9.4%
  • The religious make up of Rusholme is 37.9% Muslim
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  • In the 2011census the population of Prestbury was 4,282 and is made up of approximately 52% females and 48% males.
  • 90.1% of people living in Prestbury were born in England
  • The average age of people in Prestbury is 47, while the median age is higher at 50.
  • The religious make up of Prestbury is 74.5% Christian
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Rusholme Provision of Services

  • Armitage Sports Centre provide tennis/squash courts and a gym with free weights
  • The Hathersage Centre provide sexual health advise
  • The provision of council flats and housing for the young 
  • Darul Aman a mosque in Rusholme
  • The curry mile its claimed that there are over 70 asan takaways
  • Link workers a project aimed to help with translation of Urdu Vietnamese and Hindi for example
  • Xaverian college with appreticeships 
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Prestbury Provision of services

  • Upton Grange care home provide old people that are recovering from operations a place to recover
  • Maccelsfield district general hospital with hip replacements
  • Prestbury C.E primary school in the highest quintile for results 
  • Wilmslow Bowling Club
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